Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin Shelley
(1797-1851)
 

Internet Resources: Mary Shelley on Romantic Circles Website

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AARON, Jane. "The Return of the Repressed: Reading Mary Shelley's The Last Man" In Feminist Criticism: Theory and Practice, Ed. Susan Sellers, Linda Hutcheon, and Paul Perron. Toronto: Toronto UP, 1991: 9-21. Applies feminist critical theory to explore the theme of oppressive patriarchy in the novel.

ADAMS, Harriet Farwell. "Domesticating the Brutal Passion in Nineteenth Century Fiction." 0396

AHLBRAND, Sheila. "Author and Editor: Mary Shelley's Private Writings and the Author Function of Percy Bysshe Shelley" In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein: Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth, Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ. Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997: 35-61.

ALDISS, Brian W. "Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, 1797-1851" In Science Fiction Writers: Critical Studies of the Major Authors from the Early Nineteenth Century to the Present Day. 0397

________. Introduction to The Last Man. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1965: vi-xi. The novel belong to several genres including science fiction and the Gothic romance.

ALEXANDER, Meena. "Femininity and Betrayal: The Last Man" and "Confronting Chaos: Mary Shelley's The Last Man" In Women in Romanticism: Mary Wollstonecraft, Dorothy Wordsworth, and Mary Shelley. Savage, MD: Barnes & Noble, 1989: 155-160; 185-191. Discusses the character contrast of Perdita and Evadne as alternative feminine role models.

ALWES, Karla. "The Alienation of Family in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." In Jane Austen and Mary Shelley, and their Sisters, Ed. Laura Dabundo. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2000: 109-119. Mary Shelley's sense of alienation from her own family is registered in "the motherless birth" of the monster in Frankenstein. "The death of the maternal in the novel leaves all of the characters, including Walton and the monster, orphans." The theme of alienation also appears in "the loss of desire for human community."

ARNOLD, Donna. "Frankenstein's Monster: Paragon or Paranoic?" 0698

AWAD, Louis. "The Alchemist in English Literature: Frankenstein." 0699

BAILEY, Jutta M. "A Study of Women Characters in Selected Novels of Women Writers of the Romantic Period." 0398

BALDICK, Chris. In Frankenstein's Shadow: Myth, Monstrosity and Nineteenth Century Writing. 0399

________. "The Politics of Monstrosity." In Frankenstein/Mary Shelley, Ed. Fred Botting. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995: 48-67.

BALESTRA, Dominic J. "Technology in a Free Society: The New Frankenstein." 0400

BANERJI, Krishna. "Enlightenment and Romanticism in the Gothic: A Study of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein" In The Romantic Tradition. 0401

BANN, Stephen, Ed. Frankenstein, Creation, and Monstrosity. London: Reaktion Books, 1994.

BARBOUR, Judith. " ' The meaning of the tree ': The Tale of Mirra in Mary Shelley's Mathilda" In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein: Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth, Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ. Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997: 98-114.

BECK, Rudolph. " ' The Region of Beauty and Delight:' Walton's Polar Fantasies in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." Keats-Shelley Journal 49 (2000): 24-29. Identifies the Miltonic source for Walton’s polar fantasies. "Walton’s prelapsarian fantasies give prominence to his similarities with Frankenstein." Both characters are driven by "the same kind of absolutist utopian desire."

BAUM, Joan. "The Lessons of Frankenstein." 0700

BEAUCHAMP, Gorman. "The Frankenstein Complex and Asimov's Robots." 0701

BEHRENDT, Stephen C. Approaches to Teaching Shelley's Frankenstein. 0402

________. "Frankenstein, and the Woman Writer's Fate" In Romantic Women Writers: Voices and Countervoices, Eds. Paula R. Feldman, Theresa M. Kelley. Hanover, NH: UP of New England, 1995: 69-87.

BENNETT, Betty T. & Charles E. ROBINSON. The Mary Shelley Reader: Containing Frankenstein, Mathilda, Tales and Stories, Essays and Reviews, and Letters. 0403

________. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley: An Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

BERMAN, Jeffrey. "Frankenstein; or, The Modern Narcissus" In Narcissism and the Novel. 0404

BERTHIN, Christine. "Family Secrets and a Shameful Disease: ' Aberrations of Mourning ' in Frankenstein." QWERTY: Arts, Littératures, and Civilisations, du Monde Anglophone, 3 (1993): 53-60.

BIGLAND, Eileen. Mary Shelley. 0702

BIRKETT, Julian. "Frankensteins: The Monster Lives On." 0405

BLOOM, Harold. "Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus." 0703

________. Afterword to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. 0704

BLUMBERG, Jane. "Mary Shelley's Early Novels." Diss IT 41 (1992): 244-245 (Oxford University).

________. " ' The Earth is not, nor ever can be heaven ': The Last Man" In Mary Shelley's Early Novels: The Child of Imagination and Misery. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1993: 114-155. Sees The Last Man as reflective of Mary Shelley's loneliness and intellectual independence from the memories and subservience to Shelley and Byron."

BOCH, Gudrun. "Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus" In Der Science Fiction roman in der angloamerikanischen literatur: Interpretationen. 0407

BOK, Christian. "The Monstrosity of Representation: Frankenstein and Rousseau." 0408

BORGMEIER, Raimund. "Das Monster und Women's Lib-Mary Shelley's Frankenstein aus feministcher sicht" In Frauen und frauendarstellung in der englischen und amerikanischen literatur. 0409

BOTTING, David Charles [Fred "Making Monstrous: Frankenstein, Criticism, Theory." 0410

________. "Frankenstein's French Revolution: The Dangerous Necessity of Monsters." 0411

________. Making Monstrous, Frankenstein, Criticism, Theory. 0412

________, Ed. Frankenstein/Mary Shelley. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

BOUSQUET, Gilles."Figures du monstrueux et récit fantastique au XIXe siècle" In Monstrueux dans la littérature et la pensée anglaises. 0413

BOWEN, Arlene. " ' The Eternal and Victorious Influence of Evil ': in Mary Shelley's First Decade of Fiction (1816-1825)." Dissertation Abstracts International 53 (1992): 1921A (SUNY-Stony Brook). Argues that the early fiction "demonstrates her skepticism regarding man's potential for regeneration in a world dominated by the spirit of evil."

BOWERBANK, Sylvia. "The Social Order vs. the Wretch: Mary Shelley's Contradictory-Mindedness in Frankenstein." {GGI: 0706

BRENNAN, Matthew C. "The Landscape of Grief in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0414

BREWER, William D. "Mary Wollstonecraft and Mary Shelley: Ideological Affinities" In Jane Austen and Mary Shelley, and their Sisters, Ed. Laura Dabundo. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2000: 97-108. Corrects the relationship between Mary Shelley and her mother on issues of women's educational rights by showing how she "is much closer to Wollstonecraft in her attitudes regarding the educational rights of women than many critics recognize." Her novels, particularly Frankenstein and Valperga, "suggest that well-educated women can exist independently of the family."

BROOKS, Anita. "Frankenstein's Lonely Monster" In Practical English Handbook. 0707

BROOKS, Peter. "Godlike Science/Unhallowed Arts: Language and Monstrosity in Frankenstein." 0708

BUCHEN, Irving H. "Frankenstein and the Alchemy of Creation and Evolution." 0709

BUNNELL, Charlene E. "The Illusion of ' Great Expectations ': Manners and Morals in Mary Shelley's Lodore and Falkner" In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein: Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth, Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ. Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997: 275-292.

CALLAHAN, Patrick J. "Frankenstein, Bacon, and the ' Two Truths. '" 0710

CANTOR, Paul. "The Nightmare of Romantic Idealism" In Creature and Creator: Myth Making in English Romanticism. 0416

________. "Mary Shelley and the Taming of the Byronic Hero: ' Transformation ' and The Deformed Transformed" In The Other Mary Shelley: Beyond Frankenstein. New York: Oxford UP, 1993: 89-106. The story "Transformation" is 'a feminist revision and a rewriting of Byron's work."

________. "The Apocalypse of Empire: Mary Shelley's The Last Man" In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein: Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth, Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ. Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997: 193-211.

CARSON, James P. "Bringing the Author Forward: Frankenstein Through Mary Shelley's Letters." 0417

________. " ' A Sigh of Many Hearts ': History, Humanity, and Popular Culture in Valperga" In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein: Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth, Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ. Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997: 167-192.

CASS, Jeffrey. "The Contestatory Gothic in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and J. W. Polidori's Ernestus Berchtold: The Spectre of a Colonialist Paradigm." JAISA: Journal of the Association for the Interdisciplinary Study of the Arts 1:2 (1996): 33-41. "Gothic fiction, while opening up a narrative space in which Shelley and Polidori might. . . build a personal and cultural identity, also forces them to conjure up the spectre of a colonialist paradigm."

CASTELLO, Julio. Cien anos de Frankenstein. Barcelona: Royal Books, 1995. [100 Years of Frankenstein]

CERVO, Nathan. "Shelley's Frankenstein." 0418

CHAMPAGNE, Rosaria. "Crimes of Reading: Incest and Censorship in Mary Shelley's Early Novels." Dissertation Abstracts International 53 (1992): 1524A (Ohio State University). Mathilda presents "fragmented representations of her 1819 nervous breakdown and the aftereffects of childhood sexual abuse."

CHATTERJEE, Ranita. "Mathilda: Mary Shelley, William Godwin, and the Ideologies of Incest" In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein: Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth, Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ. Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997: 130-149.

CHURCH, Richard. Mary Shelley (1797-1851). 0711

CLARIDGE, Laura P. "Parent-Child Tensions in Frankenstein: The Search for Communion." 0419

CLARK, Eric Otto. "Magnetic Attractions: Bodies of Knowledge in the Nineteenth Century." 0420

CLEMET, Pamela. "The Last Man, Mary Shelley's Novels of the 1820s: History and Prophecy" In The Godwinian Novel: The Rational Fictions of Godwin, Brockden Brown, Mary Shelley. 183-210. Mary Shelley made "an innovative contribution to the Godwinian tradition in The Last Man."

CLUBBE, John. "Mary Shelley as Autobiographer: The Evidence of the 1831 Edition of Frankenstein." 0713

________. "The Tempest-Toss'd Summer of 1816: Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0421

COLLINGS, David. "The Monster and the Imaginary Mother: A Lacanian Reading of Frankenstein" In Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism: Mary Shelley, Frankenstein. 0422

CONGER, Lesley. "Mary's Monster." 0714

CONGER, Syndy M. "A German Ancestor for Mary Shelley's Monster: Kahlert, Schiller, and the Buried Treasure of Northanger Abbey." 0715

________. Frederick S. FRANK & Gregory O'DEA, Eds. Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein: Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997. Several of the essays refer to Mary Shelley's Gothicism in the post-Frankenstein novels and tales.

________. "Mary Shelley's Women in Prison" In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein: Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth, Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ. Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997: 81-97.

CORDARO, Joseph. "Long Day's Journey into Frankenstein." In Frankenstein/Mary Shelley, Ed. Fred Botting. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995: 116-128.

COTTOM, Daniel. "Frankenstein and the Monster of Representation." 0716

COUCHMAN, B. J. "Cassandra (Un)bound: An Examination of the Fiction of Mary Shelley. M. Phil. Dissertation. IT 38 (1989): 1458-1459. (University of York). In Frankenstein, The Last Man, and "The Immortal Immortal" Mary Shelley displays "a Cassandra voice to predict a bleak and lonely future for human-kind."

COVI, Giovanna. "The Matrushka Monster of Feminist Criticism." 0423

CRAFTS, Stephen. "Frankenstein: Camp Curiosity or Premonition?" 0717

CRAWFORD, Iain. "Wading through Slaughter: John Hampden, Thomas Gray, and Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0424

CROOK, Nora. "Mary Shelley, Author of Frankenstein." In A Companion to the Gothic, Ed. David Punter. Oxford, UK & Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2000: 58-69. Asks and answers the question "What kind of Gothic is Frankenstein?" In its use of a Germanic title, the props of Gothic terror fiction such as suspense, persecution, and panic, and the flight-and-pusuit motif of the arctic climax, Frankenstein is a hybrid of the German shudder novel or Schauerroman. Also discusses Valperga and Rambles in Germany and Italy as gernerically Gothic works.

CROUCH, Laura Ernestine. "The Scientist in English Literature: Domingo Gonzales (1638) to Victor Frankenstein (1817)," 0718

________. "Davy's A Discourse, Introductory to a Course of Lectures on Chemistry: A Possible Scientific Source of Frankenstein." 0719

CRUZALLEGUI, Patricia. "Shelley: Observaciones sobre una estética del terror." 0425

CUDE, Wilfred. "Mary Shelley's Modern Prometheus: A Study in the Ethics of Scientific Creativity." 0720

CYPESS, Sandra Messenger. "Frankenstein's Monster in Argentina: Gombaro's Two Versions." 0426

DAVIS, James P. "Frankenstein and the Subversion of the Masculine Voice." 0427

DOWSE, Robert E. & D. J. PALMER. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. 0722

DROVER, Jane Louise. " ' Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus ' and the Inoculated Reader." 0428

DUARTE, Joâo Ferreira. "O Mesmo: Frankenstein e a linguagem nacena da origem." 0429

DUNN, Jane. Moon in Eclipse: A Life of Mary Shelley. 0723

DUNN, Richard J. "Narrative Distance in Frankenstein." 0724

DURRENMATT, Jacques. "Corps de Frankenstein." QWERTY: Arts, Littératures, and Civilisations, du Monde Anglophone, 3 (1993): 65-73. [Frankenstein's bodies

DUSSINGER, John A. "Kinship and Guilt in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0725

EICHLER, Rolf. "In the Romantic Tradition: Frankenstein and The Rocky Horror Picture Show" In Beyond the Suburbs of the Mind: Exploring English Romanticism. 0430

ELLIS, Kate. "Monsters in the Garden: Mary Shelley and the Bourgeois Family" In The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essay's on Mary Shelley's Novel. 0726

ELLIS, Reuben J. "Mary Shelley's Reading of Ludwig Holberg: A Subterranean Fantasy at the Outer Edge of Frankenstein." 0431

EL-SHATER, Safaa. The Novels of Mary Shelley. Salburg, Austria: Institut für Englische Sprache und Literatur, 1977.

ENGAR, Ann. "Mary Shelley and the Romance of Science" In Jane Austen and Mary Shelley, and their Sisters, Ed. Laura Dabundo. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2000: 135-146. Comments on Shelley's reading of scientific texts during the composition of Frankenstein such as Sir Humphrey Davy's A Discourse, Introductory to a Course of Lectures on Chemistry (1802). In her presentation of the character of the scientist in Frankenstein, Shelley delivers a warning: "scientists must maintain their ties with community and keep human needs paramount notwithstanding their objective studies."

FAIRCLOUGH, Peter & Mario PRAZ. Introduction to Frankenstein In Three Gothic Novels. 0728

FAVRET, Mary. "The Letters of Frankenstein." 0432

________. "A Woman Writes the Fiction of Science: The Body in Frankenstein." 0433

FISCH, Audrey A. Anne K. MELLOR & Esther H. SCHOR. The Other Mary Shelley: Beyond Frankenstein. 0434

________. "Plaguing Politics: AIDS, Deconstruction, and The Last Man" In The Other Mary Shelley: Beyond Frankenstein. New York: Oxford UP, 1993: 267-286. The narrator, Lionel Verney, "represents Mary's answer to the faulty politics" of the other characters.

FLECK, P. D. "Mary Shelley's Notes to Shelley's Poems and Frankenstein." 0729

FLOCH, Sylvain. "La Chute d'un ange, ou le monstrueux à travers le mythe de Frankenstein de Shelley à Aldiss" In Le Monstrueux dans littérature et le pensée anglaises. 0435

FLORESCU, Radu. In Search of Frankenstein. 0731

FORRY, Steven. "Dramatizations of Frankenstein: A Comprehensive List." 0436

________. " ' The Foulest Toadstool ': Reviving Frankenstein in the Twentieth Century" In The Fantastic in World Literature and the Arts. 0437

FORRY. The ' Hideous Progenies ' of Richard Brinsley Peake: Dramatization of Frankenstein." 0438

________. Hideous Progenies: Dramatizations of Frankenstein from Mary Shelley to the Present. 0439

FOUST, R. E. "Monstrous Image: Theory of Fantasy Antagonists." 0732

FRANCI, Giovanni. "Lo Specchio del futuro: Visione e apocalisse in The Last Man di Mary Shelley." Quaderni di Filologia Germanica della Facolté di Lettere e Filosofia dell 'Universite di Bologna 1 (1980): 75-84. Reads the novel as the science fiction archetype for the theme of the mass extinction of civilization.

FRANK, Ann Marie. "Factitious States: Mary Shelley and the Politics of Nineteenth Century Women's Identity Fiction." Dissertation Abstracts International 50 (1990): 2495A-2496A (University of Michigan). Explores female characterization and narrative form. The female characters "expose the restrictive effects of culturally induced male domination on female self-identity."

FRANK, Frederick S. "Mary Shelley's Frankenstein: A Register of Research." 0732A

________. "Mary Shelley's Other Fiction: A Bibliographical Census" In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein. Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth, Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997: 309-364. Her post-Frankenstein novels and short stories show "that Mary Shelley was a highly active participant in the world of letters up until her death in 1851."

FREEBORN, Richard. "Frankenstein's Last Journey." 0440

FREEMAN, Barbara. "Frankenstein with Kant: A Theory of Monstrosity, or the Monstrosity of Theory." 0441

________. "Frankenstein with Kant; A Theory of Monstrosity or the Monstrosity of Theory." In Frankenstein/Mary Shelley, Ed. Fred Botting. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995: 191-205.

FRIEDMAN, Lester D. "Sporting with Life: Frankenstein and the Responsibility of Medical Research." 0442

GARDNER, Joseph H. "Mary Shelley's Divine Tragedy." 0733

GAYLIN, Willard."The Frankenstein Myth Becomes a Reality." 0734

GÉRARD, Albert. "Prométhée a l'envers, ou le mythe de Frankenstein." 0735

GERSON, Noel B. Daughter of Earth and Water. 0736

GERVAIS, Sylvie. "L'Ailleurs des Lumières ou comment l'homme nouveau devient un monstre dans le roman noir." In Authorship, Authority/Auteur, Autorite, Eds. Vincent Desroches, Geoffrey Turnovsky. New York: Columbia UP, 1995: 53-62. [The Elsewheres of the Enlightenment or how the new man becomes a monster in the Gothic novel

GIGANTE, Denise. "Facing the Ugly: The Case of Frankenstein." ELH 67:2 (2000): 565-587. With frequent references to Burke's Enquiry, examines the role of ugliness in Frankenstein. "Ugliness in Frankenstein is less of an aesthetic experience than a question of survival. The ugly ultimately bursts forth to consume whatever it confronts." Article has for sub-sections: I. The Via Negativa of Ugliness II. The Burkean Anti-definition III. The Kantian Aporia IV. The Birth of the Ugly in Frankenstein.

GILBERT, Sandra. "Horror's Twin: Mary Shelley's Monstrous Eve." 0737

GIVNER, Jessie. Givner, Jessie. "The Revolutionary Turn: Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." Gothic Studies 2:3 (2000): 274-291. The trope of monstrosity in Frankenstein is both literary and political and "allows us to see the way the turn develops its own particular history as it both transforms, and is transformed by, the late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century writings on the French revolution." The essay is subdivided into sections on "Frankenstein and its Victorian Progeny," "Frankenstein and its Critical Theoretical Progeny."

GOLDBERG, M. A. "Moral and Myth in Mrs. Shelley's Frankenstein." 0740

GOLDBORT, Robert C. " 'How Dare You Sport Thus With Life?: Frankensteinian Fictions as Case Studies in Scientific Ethics." Journal of Medical Humanities 16 (1995): 79-91.

GOLDNER, Ellen J. "Monstrous Body, Tortured Soul: Frankenstein at the Juncture Between Discourses" In Genealogy and Literature, Ed. Lee Quinby. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995: 28-47.

GOLDSMITH, Steven. "Of Gender, Plague, and Apocalypse: Mary Shelley's Last Man." Yale Journal of Criticism 4 (1990): 129-173. A deconstructive analysis of the novel's themes. "Shelley alters an exclusively masculine theme even as she imitates it."

________. "Apocalypse and Gender: Mary Shelley's Last Man" In Unbuilding Jerusalem: Apocalypse and Romantic Representation. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1993: 261-313. Views the novel as "dystopian and counterapocalyptic, a utopian inclination which Mary Shelley imagined bu could not know and text that distantly anticipates the current work of various French feminist writers."

GOSHKO, John M. "Frankenstein's Castle is no Horror Show." 0741

GRAY, Douglas Kevin. "Frankenstein and the Development of the English Novel." 0444

GRIFFIN Andrew. "Fire and Ice in Frankenstein" In The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelley's Novel. 0742

GROSS, Dalton & Mary GROSS. "Joseph Grimaldi: An Influence on Frankenstein." 0743

GRYLLS, R. Glynn. Mary Shelley: A Biography. 0744

HAINING, Peter. The Man Who Was Frankenstein. 0745

HALL, Jean F. "Frankenstein: The Horrifying Otherness of Family." 0445

HAMMOND, Ray. The Modern Frankenstein: Fiction Becomes Fact. 0446

HARPOLD, Terrence. " ' Did You Get Mathilda from Papa? ': Seduction Fantasy and the Circulation of Mary Shelley's Mathilda." Studies in Romanticism 28 (1989): 49-67. A psychobiographical reading. The novel "rehearses the problematic scene of her origin and foregrounds the oedipalization of the primal scene."

HARRIS, Janet. The Woman Who Created Frankenstein: A Portrait of Mary Shelley. 0746

HARVEY, A. D. "Frankenstein and Caleb Williams." 0747

HATLEN, Burton. "Milton, Mary Shelley, and Patriarchy." 0447

HELLER, Lee E. "Frankenstein and the Cultural Uses of Gothic" In Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism: Mary Shelley, Frankenstein. 0448

HILL, J. M. "Frankenstein and the Physiognomy of Desire." 0749

HILL-MILLER, Katherine. "My Hideous Progeny": Mary Shelley, William Godwin, and the Father-Daughter Relationship. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1995. This study of the influence of William Godwin on his daughter, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. "My Hideous Progeny" explores Godwln's unsettling psychological legacy -- and his generous intellectual gifts--to his daughter. The relationship between Mary Shelley and her father illustrates a typical pattern of female development and a typical course of father-daughter relatlonships over a lifetime. Godwin brought up Mary Shelley to be a thinker and writer. Yet as Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin grew into womanhood, her once supportive father rejected her. He distanced himself from her physically and emotionally during her adolescence, perhaps because of the incestuous feelings her developing womanhood called up.

HIMES, Audra Dibert. " ' Knew shame and knew desire ': Ambivalence as Structure in Mary Shelley's Mathilda" In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein: Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth, Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ. Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997: 115-129. Considers the deliberate ambivalences provoked by the narrator of the novel as a vital aspect of Mary Shelley's narrative strategy. Because of the way the novel is structured, "The reader cannot objectively receive the novel but must engage with Mathilda in her psychological landscape, and that is an area fraught with ambivalence created by vacillation between two equally powerful poles: Mathilda's position as both the subject and the object of the verb ' to desire.' "

HINDLE, Maurice. "Vital Matters: Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and Romantic Science." 0449

________. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. 0450

HIRSCH, Gordon D. "The Monster Was a Lady: On the Psychology of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0750

________. "Frankenstein, Detective Fiction, and Jekyll and Hyde" In Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde After One Hundred Years. 0451

HITCHENS, Gordon. " ' A Breathless Eagerness in the Audience ': Historical Notes on Dr. Frankenstein and his Monster." 1063

HOBBS, Colleen. "Reading the Symptoms: An Exploration of Repression and Hysteria in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0452

HODGES, Devon. "Frankenstein and the Feminine Subversion of the Novel." 0453

HOEVELER, Diane Long. "Mary Shelley and Gothic Feminism: The Case of ' The Mortal Immortal ' " In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein: Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth, Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ. Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997: 150-163. Mary Shelley's Gothicism in this futuristic short story and in her other works is a means of criticizing "the female Gothic formulae as they had evolved by the time she was writing. The story plays with variations of beating fantasies, with sometimes the male protagonist as victim, sometimes the female."

HOEVELER, Diane Long. "Fantasy, Trauma, and Gothic Daughters: Frankenstein as Therapy." Prisms: Essays in Romanticism 8 (2000): 7-28.

HOGLE, Jerrold E. "Otherness in Frankenstein: The Confinement/Autonomy of Fabrication" In Frankenstein/Mary Shelley, ed. Fred Botting. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995: 206-234.

HÖHNE, Horst. "Mary Shelley's Frankenstein: Komplexität eines poetischen bildes und das idealogische dilemma romantischer dichtung." 0752

HOMANS, Margaret. "Bearing Demons: Frankenstein's Circumvention of the Maternal" In Bearing the Word: Language and Female Experience in Nineteenth-Century Women's Writing. 0454

________. "Bearing Demons: Frankenstein's Circumvention of the Maternal" In Frankenstein/ Mary Shelley, Ed. Fred Botting. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995: 140-165.

HOPKINS, Lisa. "The Self and the Monstrous: The Fortunes of Perkin Warbeck" In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein: Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth, Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ. Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997: 260-274. Shelley's historical novel does not follow the formula of Scott's historical fiction since "she steers the historical novel toward historiography proper as she uses her text to challenge rather than reinforce the version of events that we think we know. Perkin Warbeck's very exceptionalness may be seen as a form of monstrosity, deformity from the normal that society cannot readily tolerate, any more than it could accommodate the restless talents of Victor Frankenstein or Raymond in The Last Man."

HOUGH, Jo, Brenda HALLENBECK & Francis SIMSON. "Creator, Created, Creature: A View of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein" In Women Writers and the Literary Tradition. 0753

IVANOV, Dimitri. "Strahat i Malkata Meri" In Frankenstajn ili Novijat Prometes. 0455

JACKSON, Donald George. "The Changing Myth of Frankenstein: A Historical Analysis of Interactions of a Myth, Technology, and Society." 0755

JACKSON, Rosemary. "Narcissism and Beyond: A Psychoanalytic Reading of Frankenstein and Fantasies of the Double" In Aspects of Fantasy: Selected Essays from the Second International Conference on the Fantastic in Literature and Film. 0456

JACOBUS, Mary. "Is There a Woman in this Text?" In Reading Woman: Essays in Feminist Criticism. 0457

JAMESON, Robert, Ed. The Essential Frankenstein. London: Bison Books, 1992.

JELINEK, Kenneth P. "Gothic Horror and Scientific Education in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." M.A. Thesis, Southwest Texas State University, 1997.

JENSEN, Bo Green. "Mary Shelleys romantische golem: Fra det gotiske til det moderne i Mary Shelleys Frankenstein." 04458

JOHNSON, Barbara. "My Monster/Myself." 0459

________. "The Last Man" In The Other Mary Shelley: Beyond Frankenstein, Eds. Audrey A. Fisch, Ann K. Mellor, and Esther H. Schor. New York: Oxford UP, 1993: 258-266. Mary Shelley "takes over a typically Romantic style in order to say what she sees as the end of Romanticism; she mourns for a certain type of universal vision."

JONES, Angela D. "Lying Near the Truth: Mary Shelley Performs the Private" In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein: Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth, Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ. Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997: 19-34. A defense and demarginalization of Mary Shelley that "examine[s] recent critical constructions of Mary Shelley, making palpable both the need to historicize our post-Romantic notions of authorship and to recontextualize the conceptions of this particular author." Has material on her 1817 travelogue, History of a Six Weeks' Tour.

JOSEPH, Gerhard. "Frankenstein's Dream: The Child as Father of the Monster." 0757

________. "Virginal Sex, Vaginal Text: The 'Folds' of Frankenstein" In Virginal Sexuality and Textuality in Victorian Literature. Boulder, CO: netLibrary, Incorporated, 1999: [data

JOSEPH, M. K. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. 0758

JOSHUA, Essaka. ‘Marking the Dates with Accuracy’: The Time Problem in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein.” Gothic Studies 3:3 (2001): 279-308. Takes up chronological matters in Frankenstein by investigating several questions about time in the novel as perceived by the three narrators. How old is Victor Frankenstein when he creates the monster and what are the ages of the creature and the maker at Frankenstein's death? When do the events of the novel take place and what is their proper chronological sequence? "Total recall and conspicuous plausibility is nevertheless abandoned by the narrators in favour of a presentation of time that requires close inspection and hypothesis to reveal its general consistency. The author is 'marking the dates with accuracy.' but not with transparency." 

KAPLAN, Morton & Robert KLOSS. "Fantasy of Paternity and the Doppelgänger: Mary Shelley's Frankenstein" In The Unspoken Motive: A Guide to Psychoanalytic Literary Criticism. 0759

KAWARASAKI, Yasuko. "Mary Shelley's Frankenstein: The relation of Gothic and Science Fiction to Feminism." Musashino Bijutsu Daigaku Kenkyu Kiyo 24 (1994): 181-[data]

KERCKSMAR, R. R. "Displaced Apocalypse and Eschatological Anxiety in Frankenstein." South Atlantic Quarterly 95:3 (1996): 729-52.

KESTNER, Joseph. "Narcissism as Symbol and Structure: The Case of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein" In The Nature of Identity: Essays Presented to Donald E. Haydon by the Graduate Faculty of Modern Letters, University of Tulsa. 0760

________. "Narcissism as Symbol and Structure: The Case of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein" In Frankenstein/ Mary Shelley, Ed. Fred Botting. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995: 68-80.

KETTERER, David. "Mary Shelley and Science Fiction: A Select Bibliography Selectively Annotated." 0761

________. Frankenstein's Creation: The Book, the Monster, and the Human Reality. 0762

________. "Metaphoric Matrix: Magnetism in Frankenstein" In Selected Proceedings of the 1978 Science Fiction Research Association National Conference. 0763

________. "More Percy Shelley Words in Frankenstein ?" Science Fiction Studies 25:3 (1998): 566-568.

KEYISHIAN, Harry. "Vindictiveness and the Search for Glory in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0460

KICELUK, Stephanie. "Made in His Image: Frankenstein's Daughters." 0461

KILGOUR, Maggie. "Dr. Frankenstein Meets Dr. Freud" In The American Gothic: New Interventions in a National Narrative, eds. R.K. Martin & Eric Savoy. Iowa City: University Iowa Press, 1998: 40-53. Principally on the film Silence of the Lambs based on Thomas Harris's novel. "Like many other gothic works, the novel depends upon a pattern of doubling which establishes similarities between apparently differenct activities and figures." The Gothic's major function is to "reveal to us the dangerous side of our own claims for power."

KINCAID, James R. " ' Words Cannot Express ': Frankenstein's Tripping on the Tongue." 0462

KISHIYAMA, Kiyoshi. "Plunging into Self: An Estranged Creature of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein" In Centre and Circumference: Essays in English Romanticism. Tokyo: Kirihara, for the Association of English Romanticism in Japan, 1995: 623-637.

KLEFENZ, Sandra. "Mary Shelley's Frankenstein: Der text une seine Illustration," Thesis, Eichstätt, 1997. [Mary Shelley's Frankenstein: The Text and its Illustration

KMETZ, Gail. "Mary Shelley: In the Shadow of Frankenstein." 0764

KNOEPFLMACHER, U. C. "Thoughts on the Aggression of Daughters" In The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelley's Novel. 0765

________. " ' Face to Face ': Of Man-Apes, Monsters, and Readers" In The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelley's Novel. 0766

KOYANAGI, Yasuko. "Mary Shelley's Mathilda: ' My Daughter, I Love You!" In Center and Circumference: Essays in English Romanticism. Tokyo: Kirahara, for the Association of English Romanticism in Japan, 1995: 593-608. The incest theme is the Gothic highlight of the novel.

KRANTZLER, Laura. "Frankenstein and the Technology Future." 0463

KURDINA, Zh. V. "Peizazh i ego Funktsii v romane M. Shelli ' Frankenstein ili novyi Prometei" In Problemy Zhanra i Stilia Khudozhest vennogo Proizvedenia. 0464

LAMB, John B. "Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and Milton's Monstrous Myth." 0465

LASZLO, Pierre. "Extase sublim et declin de la nature: Note sur le Frankenstein de Mary Shelley." 0466

LAU, Beth. "Mary Shelley, Frankenstein" In A Companion to Romanticism. Oxford, UK ; Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1998: [data

LAVALLEY, Albert J. "The Stage and Film Children of Frankenstein: A Survey" In The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelley's Novel. 1067

LECERCLE, Jean-Jacques. "Frankenstein" In Le Fantasme. 0467

________. Frankenstein: Mythe de Philosophie. 0468

LE GUIN, Ursula. "No Paradise to be Lost: Deconstructing the Myth of Domestic Affection in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein" In Trajectories of the Fantastic: Selected Essays from the Fourteenth International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997: [data

LEIGHTON, Margaret. Shelley's Mary: A Life of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. 0768

LEVINE, George. "Frankenstein and the Tradition of Realism." 0769

________ & U. C. KNOEPFLMACHER. The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelley's Novel. 0770

________. "Preface" In The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelley's Novel. 0771

________. "The Ambiguous Heritage of Frankenstein" In The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelley's Novel. 0772

________. "The Pattern: Frankenstein and Austen to Conrad and Lawrence, Frankenstein and the Reversal of Realism" In The Realistic Imagination: English Fiction from Frankenstein to Lady Chatterley. 0773

LEWIS, Paul. "Victor Frankenstein and Owen Warland." 0774

LOVERIDGE, Mark. "Another Monster in Frankenstein." 0469

LOWE-EVANS, Mary. "Reading with a ' Nicer Eye ': Responding to Frankenstein" In Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism: Mary Shelley, Frankenstein. 0470

________. Critical Essays on Mary Shelley. New York: G. K. Hall; London: Prentice Hall International, 1998.

LUBOT, Donna L. "The Feminine Reflexivity of Frankenstein." 0471

LUND, Mary Graham. "Mary Godwin Shelley and the Monster." 0775

________. "Shelley as Frankenstein." 0776

LUKE, Hugh J. Jr. Introduction to The Last Man. Lincoln: Nebraska UP, 1965: vii-xviii. The novel shares Gothic themes with Frankenstein.

________. "The Last Man: Mary Shelley's Myth of the Solitary." Prairie Schooner 39 (1966): 316-327. Establishes the novel's relationship to the Gothic tradition and relates its themes to the figure of the solitary in a lonely and empty universe.

LYKKE, Nina. "Skönheten Godheten och det Teknologiska Vidundret." 0472

LYLES, William H. "Mary Shelley and Frankenstein." 0777

________. Mary Shelley: An Annotated Bibliography. 0778

LYSOE, Eric. "Mary Shelley, ou la parole interdite: Ecriture et emancipation feminine dans Frankenstein." QWERTY: Arts, Litteratures and Civilisations du Monde Anglophone (3 October 1993): 89-104. [Mary Shelley or the interdicted word: Writing and feminine emancipation in Frankenstein

MAC DONALD, D. L. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 1994.

MACOVSKI, Michael Steven. "Failed Auditors: The Rhetoric of Romantic Colloquy, Coleridge to Conrad." 0473

MAGAGNOLI, Lucia. "I Prodromi della fantascienza: Il Frankenstein di Mary Shelley." 0474

MALAMUD, Randy. "Frankenstein's Monster: The Gothic Voice in The Wasteland." 0475

MARDER, Elissa. "Human, None Too Human: Readings in Literature, Psychoanalysis, and Film." 0476

MARKLEY, A. A. "Mary Shelley's ' New Gothic ': Character Doubling and Social Critique in the Short Fiction." Gothic Studies 3:1 (2001): 15-23. Mary Shelley's short stories "often proved to be the testing ground in which she experimented with recasting themes, plots, and character types from her longer novels in the service of larger projects." Discusses "The Elder Son" in relation to Frankenstein, "Transformation" as a Gothic parody, and character doubling in "The Evil Eye."

MARKUS, Manfred. "Erscheinungsformen des feminismus in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0477

MAROWITZ, Harold J. "Frankenstein and the Recombinant DNA" In The Wine of Life and Other Essays on Societies, Energy, and Living Things. 0779

MASSEY, Irving. "Singles and Doubles: Frankenstein" In The Gaping Pig: Literature and Metamorphoses. 0781

MARSHALL, Tim. "Frankenstein and the 1832 Anatomy Act" In Gothic Origins and Innovations, Eds.Allan Lloyd Smith & Victor Sage. Amsterdam-Atlanta, GA: Rodopi, 1994: 57-64. Relates the cadaverous themes of the novel and Victor Franken-stein's research interests to the 1832 Anatomy Act which legalized the use of bodies for professional dissection and medical research. The three editions of the novel prior to 1832 (1818, 1823, 1831) "are a prolepsis, a script which anticipates the legislative intervention in the anatomy contest."

MARSHALL, Tim. Murdering to Dissect: Frankenstein, Grave-Robbing, and the Anatomy of Literature. Manchester, UK: Manchester UP, 1996. Discusses the novel in light of the 1820s debates over anatomy reform and medical research.

MAYS, Milton A. "Frankenstein, Mary Shelley's Black Theodicy." 0782

MC CLOSKEY, F. H. "Mary Shelley's Frankenstein" In The Humanities in the Age of Science; In Honor of Peter Sammartino. 0783

MC GUIRE, Karen Elizabeth. "Pastoralism in the Novels of Mary Shelley." 0478

________. "The Artist as Demon in Mary Shelley, Stevenson, Walpole, Stoker, and King." 0479

MC INERNEY, Peter. "Satanic Conceits in Frankenstein and Wuthering Heights." 0784

________. "Frankenstein and the Godlike Science of Letters." 0785

MC KENNEY, John. "Nietzsche and the Frankenstein Creature." 0786

MC LEOD, Patrick G. "Frankenstein: Unbound and Otherwise." 0787

MC LOUGHLIN, Maryanne Thomasine. "Frankenstein's Rib." 0480

MC WHIR, Ann. "Teaching the Monster to Read: Mary Shelley, Education, and Frankenstein" In The Educational Legacy of Romanticism. 0481

________. Introduction to The Last Man. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 1997.

MELLOR, Anne K. "Frankenstein: A Feminist Critique of Science" In One Culture: Essays in Science and Literature. 0482

________. Mary Shelley: Her Life, Her Fiction, Her Monster. 0483

________. "Possessing Nature: The Female in Frankenstein" In Romanticism and Feminism. 0484

MENEGHELLI, Pietro. "Frankenstein o dell'Assenza del Padre." 0485

MICHIE, Elsie. "Production Replaces Creation: Market Forces and Frankenstein as a Critique of Romanticism." 0486

MIHARU, Abe. "Monstrous Images in Mary Shelley's Mathilda, a ' Double-Voiced ' Narrative" In Center and Circumference: Essays in Romanticism. Tokyo: Kirihari, for the Association of English Romanticism in Japan, 1995: 609-622. On the horror imagery of the novel.

MILLER, Arthur McA. "The Last Man: A Study of the Eschatological Theme in English Poetry and Fiction from 1806 through 1839." Dissertation Abstracts 28 (1966): 687A (Duke University). "The central episode of the novel recasts Byron's "Darkness" into prose."

MILLER, Elizabeth. "Frankenstein and Dracula: The Question of Influence" In Visions of the Fantastic: Selected Essays from the Fifteenth International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996: [data

MILLHOUSER, Milton. "The Noble Savage in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0788

MOERS, Ellen. "Female Gothic: The Monster's Mother." 0789

MONK, Patricia. "Frankenstein's Daughters: The Problems of the Feminine Image in Science Fiction." 0790

MONTAG, Warren. " ' The Workshop of Filthy Creation ': A Marxist Reading of Frankenstein" In Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism: Mary Shelley, Frankenstein. 0487

MORETTI, Franco. "Dialectic of Fear" In Signs Taken for Wonders. 0488

MORVAN, Alain. "Savoir, folie et violence dans Frankenstein de Mary Shelley" In Savoir et Violence in Angleterre du XVIe au XIXe siècle. 0489

MOSKOWITZ, Sam. "The Sons of Frankenstein" In Explorers of the Infinite: Shapers of Science Fiction. 0791

MULLALY, Edward. "Frankenstein: The Novel." 0792

MULVEY-ROBERTS, Marie. "Shelley, Mary (1797-1851)" In The Handbook to Gothic Literature, Ed. Marie Mulvey-Roberts. New York: New York University Press, 1998: 210-216.

________. "Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley." In Gothic Writers: A Critical and Bibliographical Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002: 389-398.

MURRAY, E. B. "Shelley's Contribution to Mary's Frankenstein." 0793

MUSSELWHITE, David E. "Frankenstein: The Making of a Monster" In Partings Welded Together: Politics and Desire in the Nineteenth Century English Novel. 0490

NATARAJAN, Nalini. "Frankenstein de Mary Shelley como un contratexto de la illustración." 0491

NEILSON, Heather. " ' The face at the window ': Gothic Thematics in Frankenstein, Wuthering Heights and The Turn of the Screw." Sydney Studies in English 19 (1993): 74-[data]

NEUMANN, Bonnie R. "Mary Shelley." 0795

________. Lonely Muse: A Critical Biography of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. 0796

NEWMAN, Beth. "Telling Situations: The Frame Narrative in Nineteenth-Century British Fiction." 0493

________. "Narratives of Seduction and the Seduction of Narratives." 0492

________. "Narratives of Seduction and the Seduction of Narrative: The Frame Structure of Frankenstein" In Frankenstein/Mary Shelley, Ed. Fred Botting. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995: 166-190.

NEWMAN, Jenny. "Mary and the Monster: Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and Science Fiction" In Where No Man Has Gone Before: Women and Science Fiction. 0494

NICOLA, Mark Boris. "From Heidegger to Horror; The Defiguration of the Machine in Romantic Literature and Cultural Theory." Dissertation Abstracts International 55 (1994): 557A (University of California-Irvine). Theoretical studies of the machine metaphor drawing examples from Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and Heinrich von Kleist's "Marquise of O.__" The metaphor points the way toward "an entirely new category of aesthetic experience beyond the sublime, the 'technological uncanny. ' "

NITCHIE, Elizabeth. "The Stage History of Frankenstein." 0798

________. Mary Shelley: Author of Frankenstein. 0799

NOCHIMSON, Martha. "Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley" In Critical Survey of Long Fiction. 0495

NORMAN, Sylva. "Mary Shelley: Novelist and Dramatist" In On Shelley. 0800

________. "Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley" In Shelley and His Circle. 0801

OATES, Joyce Carol. "Frankenstein's Fallen Angel." 0496

________. Afterword to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. 0497

0000, OCASIO, Blanca. "Mary Shelley's Frankenstein: SF Paradigm" In Science Fiction Miscellany: Approaches to the Study of Science Fiction. 0802

O'DEA, Gregory. "Prophetic History and Textuality in Mary Shelley's The Last Man." Papers on Language and Literature 28 (1992): 283-304. Analyzes the novel as futuristic Gothic fantasy.

________. " ' Perhaps a Tale You'll Make It ': Mary Shelley's Tales for The Keepsake" In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein: Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth, Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ. Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997: 62-78.

O'DONOHOE, Nick. "Condemned to Life: ' The Mortal Immortal ' and ' The Man Who Never Grew Young ' " In Death and the Serpent: Immortality in Science Fiction and Fantasy, Eds. Carl B. Yoke & Donald M. Hasler. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985: 98-119. Compares and contrasts the Gothic themes of Mary Shelley's story with Fritz Leiber's story, "The Man Who Never Grew Young."

O'FLINN, Paul. "Production and Reproduction: The Case of Frankenstein." 0498

________. "Production and Reproduction: The Case of Frankenstein" In Frankenstein/Mary Shelley, ed. Fred Botting. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995: 21-47.

O'ROURKE, James. " ' Nothing More Unnatural ': Mary Shelley's Revision of Rousseau." 0499

OZOLINS, Aija. "The Novels of Mary Shelley: From Frankenstein to Falkner." 0803

________. "Dreams and Doctrines: Dual Strands in Frankenstein." 0804

________. "Recent Work on Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0805

PALACIO, Jean de. Mary Shelley dans son oeuvre: Contributions aux études Shelleyennes. 0806

PALEY, Morton D. "Mary Shelley's The Last Man: Apocalypse without Millenium." Keats-Shelley Review 4 (1989): 1-25. Discusses the novel's themes of failed imagination and "ambivalence toward millenarianism."

PALMER, D. J. & R. E. DOWSE, "Frankenstein: A Moral Fable." 0807

PARRINDER, Patrick. "Frankenstein's Monster." 0808

PASCHETTO, Anna. "Un Primo e un ultimo uomo: Il Problema Mary Shelley da Frankenstein a The Last Man" In Sheherazade in Inghilterra: Formule narrative nell'evoluzione del ' romance ' inglese. 0500

PATTERSON, Mary Katherine. "Frankenstein by Mary Shelley: Notes on a Divided Myth." 0501

________. [THORNBURG The Monster in the Mirror: Gender and the Sentimental/Gothic Myth in Frankenstein. 0502

PAYOT, Roger. "Note sur Rousseau et Frankenstein." 0809

PEARSON, Edmund Lester. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. 0810

PECK, Walter E. "The Biographical Element in the Novels of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley." 0503

PENIGAULT-DUHET, Paule. Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin. 0504

PERKINS, Margo V. "The Nature of Otherness: Class and Difference in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0505

PEROSA, Sergio. "Franklin to Frankenstein: A Note on Lightning and Novels; Proc. of Conf. Gargnano del Garda 12-16 Apr. 1985." In Science and Imagination in XVIIIth-Century British Culture/Scienza e immaginazione nella cultura inglese del Settecento, Eds. Sergio Rossi, Giulio Giorello. Milan: Unicopli, 1987: 321-328.

PETRONELLA, Vincent F. "Mary Shelley, Shakespeare, and the Romantic Theatre" In Jane Austen and Mary Shelley, and their Sisters, Ed. Laura Dabundo. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2000: 121-134. Considers the Shakespearean aspects and dramatic features of Mary Shelley's novels. "The Last Man [for example] is consciously dramatic throughout. Theatre metaphors abound as do allusions to various Shakespearean texts and characters." Shelley unites the best features of the Romantic drama of her own time with Shakespearean resources.

PHY, Allene Stuart. Mary Shelley. 0506

PING, Tang Soo. "Frankenstein, Paradise Lost, and ' The Majesty of Goodness.' " 0507

PITCHER, Edward W. R. "Frankenstein as Short Fiction: A Unique Adaptation of Mary Shelley's Novel." 0508

POLLIN, Burton. "Philosophical and Literary Sources of Frankenstein." 0812

POOVEY, Mary. " ' My Hideous Progeny ': Mary Shelley and the Feminization of Romanticism." 0813

________. The Proper Lady and the Woman Writer: Ideology as Style in the Works of Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Shelley, and Jane Austen. 0509

POTNICEVA, T. N. "Problema romanticheskogo metoda v romanakh M. Shelli ' Frankenstein ' (1818), ' Matil'da ' (1819)." Dissertation, Moskovskii Pedagogicheskii Institut im. N. K. Krupskoy, Moscow, 1978. [The Problem of Romantic Method in Mary Shelley's Novels Frankenstein and Mathilda Shelley addressed the problems of the female artist's immersion of the self in these works by using irony and male narrators.

POWER, Henriette Lazardidas. "The Text as Trap: The Problem of Difference in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0510

POWERS, Katherine Richardson. The Influence of William Godwin on the Novels of Mary Shelley." 0814

________. The Influence of William Godwin on the Novels of Mary Shelley. 0815

RANDAL, Fred V. "Frankenstein, Feminism, and the Intertexuality of Mountains." 0511

RAJAN, Tilottama. "Mary Shelley's Mathilda: Melancholy and the Political Economy of Romanticism." Studies in the Novel 26 (1994): 43-68. Sees the novel as the darkest of autobiographies, "her most depressing text, a narrative of trauma. . . The situation encrypts that of Mary Shelley herself."

RAJAN, Tilottama. Introduction to Valperga. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 1998.

RAO, E. Nagaswara. "The Significance of Frankenstein." 0817

RAUCH, Alan. "Moral Responsibility and the Growth of Knowledge." 0512

RAY, Anne-Marie. "Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley" In An Encyclopedia of British Women Writers. 0513

REAVES, Susan Carol. "Sentimental and Gothic Elements of Frankenstein's monster: A Study of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." Master'sThesis, East Carolina University, 1992.

REED, Jojn R. "Will and Fate in Frankenstein." 0818

REITZ, Anne L. "Sawbones to Savior to Cynic: The Doctor's Relation to Society in English Fiction of the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Centuries." 0514

RICHARDSON, Alan. "From Émile to Frankenstein: The Education of Monsters." 0515

RICHTER, Anne. "Mary Shelley et la création de Frankenstein." 0516

RIEDER, John. " ' A Filthy Type ': The Motif of the Fecal Child in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." Gothic Studies 3:1 (2001): 24-31. Discusses "the scatological character of the creature," an "excremental character" or fecal child, tying these to Freud's essay "On the Transformation of Instincts with Special Reference to Anal Eroticism." "The way the disgusting, odious, and loathsome process of Frankensteinian reproduction combines birth-by-defecation with incest unfolds itself in Victor's dream after finishing the creature."

RIEGER, James. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. 0819

RIVIERE, Rolando. "Fascinación de una novela desconocida: Frankenstein." 0517

ROBERTS, Marie. "Mary Shelley and the Mortal Immortal: ' Transformation ' and ' The Evil Eye ' " In Gothic Immortals: The Fiction of the Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross. New York: Routledge, 1990: 94-95. Relates the power of the evil eye of the Albanian wanderer, Dimitri, to Shelley's Ginotti in St. Irvyne and other Rosicrucian characters.

ROBERTS, Robin Ann. "A New Species: The Female Tradition in Science Fiction from Mary Shelley to Doris Lessing." 0518

________. "The Paradigm of Frankenstein: Reading Canopus in Argos in the Context of Science Fiction by Women." 0519

ROBERTSON, Michael Lee. "Frankenstein and ' The Odyssey ': Subverting the Gendered Structure of the Epic Tradition." 0520

ROBERTSON-GRIFFITH, Olivia Pauline. "Frankenstein as the Permeative Myth of the Twentieth Century." 0521

ROBINSON, Charles E., Ed. The Frankenstein Notebooks: A Facsimile Edition of Mary Shelley's Manuscript Novel, 1816-17 (with alterations in the hand of Percy Bysshe Shelley) as it survives in draft and fair copy. New York & London: Garland, 1996. This book includes a facsimile of the manuscript; transcriptions facing each manuscript page, with extensive footnotes on these facing pages; and a 110-page introduction about the manuscript and the novel.

ROSENBERG, Samuel. "Happy Sequicentennial, Dear Monster: The Horrible Truth About Frankenstein." 0821

RUBENSTEIN, Marc A. " ' My Accursed Origin ': The Search for the Mother in Frankenstein." 0822

RUDOLF, G. "Zur Psychologie der horrorliteratur. Schizoides körpererleben am beispiel von Frankensteins Monster." {GGI: 0823

RUSSELL, Elizabeth. " ' All is show and I but shadow ': Mary Shelley; Self and Text" In Representations of the Self in Women's Autobiography, Ed. Vita Fortunati. Bologna: University of Bologna, 1993: 17-28. Examines the theme of tragic consciousness in Mary Shelley's novels.

RYAN, Robert M. "Mary Shelley's Christian Monster." 0522

SADRIN, Anny. "De la métaphore a la metamorphose l'homme machine de Descartes à la science fiction post-Darwinian. Avec arrêt sur H. G. Wells." {GGII: 0523

SAMBROOK, A. J. "A Romantic Theme: The Last Man." Forum for Modern Language Studies 2 (1966): 25-33. Emphasizes the prototypical role of the novel in developing the motif of the last survivor.

SANDERSON, Richard K. "Glutting the Maw of Death: Suicide and Procreation in Frankenstein." 0524

SAUER, Liselotte. Marionetten, machinen, automaten: Der Künstliche mensch in den deutschen und englischen romantik. 0525

SCHONE-HARWOOD, Bertold. Frankenstein. New York: Columbia UP; Columbia Critical Guides, 2000.

SCHUG, Charles. The Romantic Form of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0824

SCOTT, Peter Dale. "Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin Shelley and Frankenstein: A Chronology" In The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelley's Novel. 0825

________. "Vital Artifice: Mary, Percy, and Psychopolitical Integrity of Frankenstein" In The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelley's Novel. 0826

SCRIVENER, Michael. "Frankenstein's Ghost Story: The Last Jacobin Novel." 0526

SEED, David. "Frankenstein: Parable or Spectacle?" 0527

SENCOURT, Robert. "Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley." 0827

SENF, Carol N. "Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin" In Encyclopedia of Romanticism: Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s, ed. Laura Dabundo. New York: Garland Publishing, 1992: 523-525.

SHERWIN, Paul. "Frankenstein: Creation as Catastrophe." 0828

________. "A Psychoaesthetic Reading of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0528

SMALL, Christopher. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein: Tracing the Myth. 0829

SMITH, Curtis C. "Horror Versus Tragedy: Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and Olaf Stapledon's Sirius." 0529

SMITH, Johanna M. Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism: Mary Shelley, Frankenstein. 0530

________. " ' Cooped Up ': Feminine Domesticity in Frankenstein" In Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism: Mary Shelley, Frankenstein. 531

________. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. New York, Bedford Books, 2000. A Case Study in Contemporary Criticism. Text based on the second edition of 1831.

SMITH, Susan. Harris. "Frankenstein: Mary Shelley's Psychic Divisiveness." 0830

SNYDER, Robert Lance. "Apocalypse and Indeterminacy in Mary Shelley's The Last Man." Studies in Romanticism 17 (1978): 435-452. Discusses the novel's "conceptual uniqueness" by examining the plague as a conveyer of the theme of catastrophic indeterminacy.

SOUFOULIS, Zoe. " ' Through the Lumen ': ' Frankenstein ' and the Optics of Re-Origination." 0532

SOYKA, David. "Frankenstein and Miltonic Creation of Evil." 0533

SPARK, Muriel. "Mary Shelley: A Prophetic Novelist." 0833

________. Child of Light: A Reassessment of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. 0834

SPATT, Hartley. "Mary Shelley's Last Men: The Truth of Dreams." 0835

SPEARS, Marthalee Atkinson. "The Sympathetic Imagination in the Fiction of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley." 0836

SPECTOR, Judith A. "Science Fiction and the Sex War: A Womb of One's Own." 0837

SPEHNER, Norbert. Frankenstein, Opus 410: Guide chrono-bibliographique des éditions, des versions et des adaptations internationales du roman de Mary Shelley (1818-1997). Quebec: Ashem Fictions, 1997. [Frankenstein, Opus 410: Chrono-bibliographic guide to editions, versions, and international adaptations of Mary Shelley's Novel

SPIVAK, Gayatri Chakravorty. "Three Women's Texts and a Critique of Imperialism" In Frankenstein/Mary Shelley, ed. Fred Botting. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995: 235-260.

STABLEFORD, Brian. "Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus" In Survey of Modern Fantasy Literature. 0534

STERRENBERG, Lee. "Mary Shelley's Monster: Politics and Psyche in Frankenstein" In The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelley's Novel. 0838

________. "The Last Man: Anatomy of Failed Revolutions." Nineteenth Century Fiction 33 (1978): 324-347. Relates this "disaster novel" to other post-Napoleonic works in order to place the book as "an anatomy of the revolutionary age."

STEVENSON, Randall. "Frankenstein." 0535

STEVICK, Philip. "Frankenstein and Comedy" In The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelley's Novel. 0839

STRUTKOVA, T. G. "Romany M. Shelli v Kontekste Literatury Angliiskogo Romantiz-ma" In Realizm i Khudozhestvennye Iskaniia v Zarubezhnoy Literature XIX-XX Vekov. Voronezh, USSR: Voronezh University, 1980: 93-109. [The Novels of Mary Shelley in the Context of the Literature of English Romaticism Discusses all of the novels and measures their success against the criteria of Romanticism.

SUNSTEIN, Emily W. Mary Shelley: Romance and Reality. 0536

SVILPIS, J. E. "The Mad Scientist and Domestic Affections in Gothic Fiction" In Gothic Fictions: Prohibition/Transgression. 0537

SWINGLE, L. J. "Frankenstein's Monster and its Romantic Relatives: Problems of Knowledge in English Romanticism." 0840

TANNENBAUM, Leslie. "From Filthy Type to Truth: Miltonic Myth in Frankenstein." 0841

THOMAS, Ronald Robert. "Dream, Power, and Authority in Nineteenth Century British Fiction." 0538

________. "Recovering Nightmares: Nineteenth-Century Gothic/Demons and Disease in Frankenstein" In Dreams of Authority: Freud and the Fictions of the Unconscious. 0539

TILLOTSON, Marcia. " ' A Forced Solitude ': Mary Shelley and the Creation of Frankenstein's Monster" In The Female Gothic. 0540

TODD, Janet M. "Frankenstein's Daughter: Mary Shelley and Mary Wollstonecraft." 0844

TROPP, Martin. "Mary Shelley's Monster: A Study of Frankenstein." 0845

________. Mary Shelley's Monster: The Story of Frankenstein. 0846

TRUJILLO MUÑOZ, Gabriel. "Ciencia y ciencia ficción decimonicas, la palabra y el hombre." 0541

TUITE, Clara. "Frankenstein's Monster and Malthus' Jaundiced Eye: Population, Body Politics, and the Monstrous Sublime." Eighteenth-Century Life 22:1 (1998): 141-55.

TWITCHELL, James B. "Frankenstein and the Anatomy of Horror." 0848

UNSIGNED. "Jean Hershort Sale." 0756

________. "Mary Shelley." 0780

VACQUIN, Monnette F. Frankenstein; ou, les délires de raison. 0542

VARGO, Lisa. Introduction to Lodore. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 1997.

VASBINDER, Samuel Holmes. "Scientific Attitudes in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein: Newtonian Monism as a Base for the Novel." 0851

________. "A Possible Source for the Term ' Vermicelli ' in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0852

________. Scientific Attitudes in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. 0543

VEEDER, William. "The Negative Oedipus: Frankenstein and the Shelleys." 0544

________. Mary Shelley and Frankenstein: The Fate of Androgyny. 0545

VEGA RODRIGUEZ, Pilar, Mary Shelley: La Gestacion del Milton de Frankenstein. Madrid: Aldeberan, 1999. [Gestation from Milton to Frankenstein

VLASOPOLOS, Anca. "Frankenstein's Hidden Skeleton: The Psycho-Politics of Oppression." 0546

VOHL, Maria. Die Erzählungen der Mary Shelley und ihre urbilder. 0853

VON MAANEN, W. "Mary Shelley en haar ' Thriller ' Frankenstein." 0854

WADE, Phil. "On the Occasion of the One Hundred Fiftieth Birthday of Frankenstein's Monster: Some Thoughts on his Parentage." 0855

________. "Shelley and the Miltonic Element in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0856

WAKE, Ann M. Frank. "Women in the Active Voice: Recovering Female History in Mary Shelley's Valperga and Perkin Warbeck" In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein: Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth, Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ. Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997: 235-259.

WALLING, William A. Mary Shelley. 0857

WAXMAN, Barbara Frey. "Victor Frankenstein's Romantic Fate: The Tragedy of the Promethean Overreacher as Woman." 0547

WEBER, Ingeborg. "Wie schaurig ist Frankenstein?" 0858

WEINKAUF, Mary S. "The Daughters of Frankenstein: Women and Science Fiction." 0859

WEISSMAN, Judith. "A Reading of Frankenstein as the Complaint of a Political Wife." 0860

________. "Mary Shelley: Fiends and Families" In Haf Savage and Hearty and Free: Women and Rural Radicalism in the Nineteenth-Century Novel. 0548

WELLS, Lynn. "The Triumph of Death: Reading and Narrative in Mary Shelley's The Last Man" In Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley After Frankenstein: Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth, Eds. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ. Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997: 212-234.

WESTFAHL, Gary. "SHELLEY, Mary (Wollstonecraft Godwin)" In St. James Guide to Horror, Gothic, & Ghost Writers, Ed. David Pringle. Detroit, New York, Toronto, London: St. James Press, 1998: 524-527.

WEXENBLATT, Robert. "The Ambivalence of Frankenstein." 0861

WHEELER, Wayne Bruce. "The Horror of Science Fiction in Politics: Prophecy and the Crisis in Human Values in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and Aldous Huxley's Brave New World." 0862

WILLIAMS, John. Mary Shelley: A Literary Life. New York, St Martin's Press, 2000.

________. “Translating Mary Shelley’s Valperga into English: historical romance, biography or Gothic fiction” In European Gothic: A Spirited Exchange 1760-1960, Ed. Avril Horner. Manchester & New York: Manchester University Press, 2002: 147-160.

WILT, Judith. "Frankenstein as Mystery Play" In The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelley's Novel. 0863

WILTERDING, Catherine Jewel. "A Masked Tale of Consequences: A Feminist Critique of Frankenstein." NIEKAS 45: Essays on Dark Fantasy. Center Harbor, NH: Niekas Publications, 1998: 72-76.

WOLF, Leonard. Introduction to Mary Shelley's Frankenstein: The Definitive Annotated Edition of Mary Shelley's Classic Novel. 0549

YOUNGQUIST, Paul. "Frankenstein: The Mother, the Daughter and the Monster." 0550

ZDANYS, Jonas. "Raskolnikov and Frankenstein: The Deadly Search for a Rational Paradise." 0864

ZEUSCHNER, Michael. "Studie zur symbolischen Qualität von Mary Shelleys Frankenstein." Thesis, Erlanger, 1996. [Study of the symbolic quality of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein]

ZIOLKOWSKI, Theodore J. "Science, Frankenstein, and Myth." 0865

ZONANA, Joyce. " ' The Will Prove the Truth of My Tale ': Safie's Letters as the Feminist Core of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0551

ZUCKERMAN, Geri Lynn. "Self-Assertion and Self-Annihilation in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." 0552

ZWICKEL, Marion Carol. "A Narratological Reading Emphasizing the Narrator/Naratee Relationships in Mary Shelley's 'Frankenstein,' Charles Robert Maturin's 'Melmoth the Wanderer,' and Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's 'Carmilla,'" Dissertation Abstracts International 57:6 (1996): 2500A (University of West Virginia). Focuses on the narrator/narratee relationships in three "highly mediated," nineteenth century, English Gothic novels: Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Charles Robert Maturin's Melmoth the Wanderer, and, Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's Carmilla. A narratological reading depicts how the form of these novels illuminates their content to demonstrate that these Gothic stories do have redeeming literary merits and are not just popular fiction. A narratological reading is a good initial approach for better understanding Frankenstein, Melmoth, and Carmilla as well as all other highly mediated Gothic novels."

________. "The Functions of the Narratees in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." Bulletin of the West Virginia Association of College English Teachers 13:1 (1991): 69-75.