SABOR, Peter. "From Terror to the Terror: Changing Concepts of the Gothic in Eighteenth-Century England," Man and Nature/L'homme et la nature 10 (1991): 165-178.

SABOR, Peter, ed. The Works of Horatio Walpole, Earl of Orford, 1798. From the 1798 edition. See under: Anthologies.

SABOR, Peter. "Medieval Revival and the Gothic," The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism, eds. H.B. Nisbet & Claude Rawson. Vol. 4. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997, pp. [data].

SADLEIR, Michael. "The Northanger Novels: A Footnote to Jane Austen," Jane Austen, Critical Assessments: Volume III, Juvenilia; Lady Susan; the Watsons; the Letters; Northanger Abbey; Sense and sensibility; Pride and Prejudice. Mountfield, East Sussex: Helm Information, 1998, [data].Reprinted from Sadleir's 1927 pamphlet for the English Association. See GGI: 0986.

SAGE, Victor. "Gothic Laughter: Farce and Horror in Five Texts," Gothick Origins and Innovations. eds. Victor Sage & Allan Lloyd Smith. Amsterdam; Atlanta, Georgia: Rodopi; Costerus New Series 91, 1994, pp. 190-203. The five texts are Radcliffe's The Italian, Le Fanu's Uncle Silas, Dickens's Dombey and Son, Stoker's Dracula, and King's Salem's Lot. Concludes that "the ambivalence of effect" provoked by Gothic laughter "is not a marginal, but a central feature of the Gothic tradition."

SAGE. Victor. "The Epistemology of Error: Reading and Isolation in The Mysteries of Udolpho," QWERTY: Littératures and Civilisations du Monde Anglophone, October 1996, pp. 6, 107-113.

SAGE, Victor and Allan Lloyd SMITH. Gothick Origins and Innovations. Amsterdam; Atlanta, Georgia: Rodopi; Costerus New Series 91, 1994. Nineteen papers drawn from the First International Gothic Conference held at the University of East Anglia in June 1991. The Introduction by Allan Lloyd Smith and Victor Sage relies on Derrida's revsionary rereading of Freud's explanation of moral law in Totem and Taboo. "The 'Gothic' was belated from the beginning, a revisioning of past events experienced as trauma. The Gothic is not so much a literary genre as a broader cultural response, and as such is reducible to the purity of origins nor the purity of literary form." For the individual essays and their contents, see: Maurice LÉVY, "'Gothic' and the Critical Idiom"; John Allen STEVENSON," Tom Jones, Jacobitism, and the Rise of the Gothic"; Jerrold E. HOGLE, "The Ghost of the Counterfeit in the Genesis of the Gothic"; Emma CLERY, "Against Gothic"; Richard HASLAM, "Maturin and the 'Calvinist Sublime'"; Tim MARSHALL, "Frankenstein and the 1832 Anatomy Act"; Allan Lloyd SMITH, "'Rip Van Winkle' and the Phantom"; William VEEDER, "Form, Psychoanalysis, and Gender in Gothic Fiction: The Instance of 'Rip Van Winkle'"; Francesca ORESTANO, "The Case for John Neal: Gothic Naturalized"; Benjamin Franklin FISHER IV, "Gothic Possibilities in Moby-Dick"; Charles L. CROW, "Jack London's The Sea-Wolf as Gothic Romance"; William HUGHES, "Profane Resurrections: Bram Stoker's Self-Censorship in The Jewel of Seven Stars"; Edmund CUSICK, "Stoker's Languages of the Supernatural: A Jungian Approach to the Novels"; Jochen ACHILLES, "Fantasy as Psychological Necessity: Sheridan Le Fanu's Fiction"; Alison MILBANK, "From the Sublime to the Uncanny: Victorian Gothic and Sensation Fiction"; David SEED, "Behind Closed Doors: The Management of Mystery in The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde"; Victory SAGE, "Gothic Laughter: Farce and Horror in Five Texts"; Andrew HIGSON, "Gothic Fantasy as Art Cinema: The Secret of Female Desire in The Innocents"; David PUNTER, "The Passions of Gothic." No index.

SAGE, Victor & Allan Lloyd SMITH, eds. Modern Gothic: A Reader. Manchester & New York: Manchester UP, 1996. Thirteen critical essays on various writers and themes. The collection "attempts to interpret the unmistakable presence, through structural or verbal allusion, or wholesale rewriting, of the Gothic in some of the fictions of the postwar period. The Gothic is not merely a literary convention or set of motifs: it is a language, often an anti-historicising language, which provides writers with the critical means of transferring an idea of the otherness of the past into the present." Contents: 1. Alan LLOYD SMITH, "Postmodernism/Gothicism." 2. Victor SAGE, "The Politics of Petrifaction: Culture, Religion, History in the Fiction of Iain Banks and John Banville." 3. Laura MULVEY, "The pre-Oedipal Father: The Gothicism of Blue Velvet." 4. Ros BALLASTER, "Wild Nights and Buried Letters: The Gothic Unconscious of Feminist Criticism." 5. Susanne BECKER, "Postmodern Feminine Horror Fictions." 6. Helen STODDART, "Isak Dinesen and the Fiction of Gothic Gravity." 7. Peter HUTCHINGS, "Tearing Your Soul Apart: Horror's New Monsters." 8. Liliane WEISSBERG, "Gothic Spaces: The Political Aesthetics of Toni Morrison's Beloved." 9. David, PUNTER, "Problems of Recollection and Construction: Stephen King." 10. Beate NEUMEIER, "Postmodern Gothic: Desire and Reality in Angela Carter's Writing. 11. David SEED, "Alien Invasions by Body Snatchers and Other Related Creatures. 12. Judie NEWMAN, "Postcolonial Gothic: Ruth Prawer Jhabvala and the Sobhraj Case." 13. Giles MENEGALDO, "Gothic Convention and Modernity in Johh Ramsey Campbell's Short Fiction." Index.

SAGE, Victor. "The Politics of Petrifaction: Culture, Religion, History in the Fiction of Iain Banks and John Banville, Modern Gothic: A Reader, eds. Victor Sage and Allan Lloyd Smith. Manchester & New York: Manchester UP, 1996. pp. 20-37.

SAGE, Victor. "Gothic Novel," Encyclopedia of the Novel, ed. Paul Schellinger. Chicago & London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1998, 497-501. The entry briefly reviews the whole history of Gothic fiction from the early Gothics to modern times. "In the last 20 years, serious critical commentary has expanded exponentially. Debate is keen about hos 'subversive' Gothic is. Every college has its course on horror and the Gothic."

SAGE, Victor. "Gothic Novel" In The Handbook to Gothic Literature, Ed. Marie Mulvey-Roberts. New York: New York University Press, 1998: 81-89.

SAGE, Victor. "Irish Gothic: C. R. Maturin and J. S. LeFanu," A Companion to the Gothic, ed. David Punter. Oxford, UK & Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2000, 81-93. Discusses the interrelationship of "two Huguenot Protestant writers both with family connections in the Irish church, both curiously learned, self-conscious writers, absorbed by their Calvinist heritage, and its relation to aesthetics, psychology, and politics, and both with an irresistible attraction to effects of terror and horror." Also discusses and accounts for the change in Maturin's Gothicism after he began to correspond with Sir Walter Scott.

SAGE, Victor. "Resurrecting the Regency: Horror and Eighteenth-Century Comedy in Le Fanu's Fiction" In Victorian Gothic: Literary and Cultural Manifestations in the Nineteenth Century. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2000: 12-30.

SAGE, Victor. “Diderot and Maturin: Enlightenment, automata, and the theatre of terror” In European Gothic: A Spirited Exchange 1760-1960, Ed. Avril Horner. Manchester & New York: Manchester University Press, 2002: 55-70.

SAGLIA, Diego. "Looking at the Other: Cultural Differences and the Traveler's Gaze in The Italian," Studies in the Novel, 28:1 (1996): 12-37. Studies Gothic landscaping as a "recurrent topos" in The Italian. Reads The Italian as an explicit example of how Gothic novelists conceive geographic place as a unity with the cultural and human landscape and develop specific ideological issues and dilemmas within such distant locales."

SALAMONE, Frank A. "The Anthropological Vision of Anne Rice," The Gothic World of Anne Rice, eds. Gary Hoppenstand, Ray B. Browne. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1996, pp. 35-53.

SALAS, Claudio Damian. "The Tell-Tale Ending: The Poetics of Closure in Poe's Short Stories," M.A. Thesis, University of Puerto Rico, 1999. This study accounts for Poe's strong effect on his readers by focusing on his story endings. It is in these apocalyptic endings that Poe's haunting, mythmaking ability attains its full strength. Also has material on Jorge Luis Borges's use of Poe.

SALISBURY, Jay D. "Gothic and Romantic Wandering: The Epistemology of Oscillation." Gothic Studies 3:1 (2001): 45-60. Studies both the significance of the character and the meaning of wandering itself in various Gothic figures later appropriated by the Romantics. "In Gothic and Romantic writing dreadful uncertainty often appears in the figure of the wanderer. The figure of the wanderer haunts Romanticism as it attempts to move away from and foreclose" moments of epistemological confidence in social and spiritual systems.

SALMONSON, Jessica. "Gothic Magician: The Life and Supernatural Tales of Julian Hawthorne," The Rose of Death and Other Mysterious Delusions. Ashcroft, B.C.: Ash-Tree, 1997, pp. [data].

SALSINI, Laura Anne. "Beyond Verismo: Matilde Serao's Romance Narratives and Gothic Tales," Dissertation Abstracts International 56:6 (1995):2260A (Indiana University). On the Gothicism of the Italian writer,Matilde Serao. "She revises generic conventions in order to articulate her vision of female experiences and female destiny" in turn-of the-century Italy.This multi-disciplinary approach not only generates a more inclusive and innovative reading of Serao, but also creates the necessary framework from which to explore her influence on other Italian women authors."

SAMARA, Donya A. "Gothic criticism(s)," Novel 29:2 (1996): [data].

SAMARA, Donya Anne. "Questionable Ends: Reflections on the Sublime in Contemporary Culture," Dissertation Abstracts International 60:2 (1998): 435 (Indiana University). Has material on Mrs. Radcliffe's Gothics and Mary Shelley's works. Maintains that "the sublime is important because it critiques apolitical belief in ends. The sublime deals directly with the crisis such a structure of judgment creates by highlighting an ethical dilemma: while responsibility to both the future and the present may be unreconcilable, the choice of one over the other is also irresponsible."

SAMMELLS, Neil. "Wilde, Oscar (1854-1900)" In The Handbook to Gothic Literature, Ed. Marie Mulvey-Roberts. New York: New York University Press, 1998: 252-254.

SANDIFORD, Keith A. "'Monk' Lewis and the Slavery Sublime: The Agon of Romantic Desire in the Journal," Essays in Literature, 23:1 (1996): 84-98.

SANDNER, David Matthew. "The Fairy Way of Writing: Fantastic Literature from the Romance Revival to Romanticism, 1712--1830." Dissertation Abstracts International 61:7 (2000): 2734 (University of Oregon). Surveys several Gothic works to study the theory and practice of fantastic literature. Includes writings on the fantastic by Joseph Addison, John Keats, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Gothic writers such as Walpole, Radcliffe, Mary Shelley, and Scott are also surveyed. "The fantastic performs the superstitious past as a radically lost (often "Gothick") pre-history that uncannily defines skeptical modernity." Also discusses the treatises by two theoreticians of Gothic fantasy, Bishop Richard Hurd and Edmund Burke.

SANDOVAL, Christine. "The House That Roared," Cinefex 1 October 1999, 45. In The Haunting, based on the novel by Shirley Jackson, the malevolent spirit of a killer manifests itself in a Gothic mansion, turning imagined threats into nightmarish reality for the unwitting subjects of a psychological study. Director Jan De Bont sought the talents of effects maestro Phil Tippett and production designer Eugenio Zanetti, among others, to inject new life into the eerie tale.

SARGENT, Laura Jane. "Gender Politics and the Beautiful Parricide: Beatrice Cenci as a Nineteenth Century Icon," Dissertation Abstracts International 61 (2000): 1392 (Texas A & M University). Has material on Shelley's 1819 Gothic drama, The Cenci, a play that "incited phenomenal interest in la belle parricide."

SAUERMANN-WESTWOOD, Doris. "Das Frauenbild im englischen schauerroman." Doctoral Dissertation, Marburg Universitat, 1978. [The Picture of women in the English Gothic novel].

SAVOY, Eric. "The Face of the Tenant: A Theory of American Gothic," The American Gothic: New Interventions in a National Narrative, eds. R.K. Martin & Eric Savoy. Iowa City: University Iowa Press, 1998, pp. 3-19. The theory stresses the allegorical nature of American Gothic narrative. Uses Truman Capote's In Cold Blood and Grant Wood's painting American Gothic to argue that the American Gothic mode is "an impulse rather than a literary artifact. American Gothic does not exist apart from its specific regional manifestations."

SAVOY, Eric. "Spectres of Abjection: The Queer Subject of James's "The Jolly Corner," Spectral Readings: Towards a Gothic Geography, eds. Glennis BYRON, David PUNTER. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999, 161-174.

SAVOY, Eric. “The rise of American Gothic” In The Cambridge Companion to Gothic Fiction, Ed. Jerrold E. Hogle. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002: 167-188. Generally adheres to Fiedler’s thesis in Love and Death in the American Novel by “locat[ing] the rise of American Gothic and its powerful appeal in certain verbal devices or figures . . . includ[ing] fictional specters and authorial personae, rhetorical strategies for meditating on America’s perplexing history, and strange uses of tropes such as metaphor and personification, that turn language toward suggestions of distinctive and dark American obsessions.” From the dark imaginings of Charles Brockden Brown through the tormented visions of Hawthorne, Melville, Poe, and Henry James, the keepers of the American nightmare show “the enduring appeal of the Gothic to our most continuous fears, especially in an America haunted by the dark recesses of its own history.”

SCEATS, Sarah. "Oral Sex: Vampiric Transgression and the Writing of Angela Carter." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 20:1 (2001): 107-121.

SCHAFER, Katrina Marie. Effeminism: The Economy of Colonial Desire. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998. Contains a chapter called "Cartographies of Homosocial Terror: Kipling's Gothic Tales and Kim."

SCHANEMAN, Judith Clark. "Rewriting Adele et Theodore: Intertextual Connections Between Madame de Genlis and Ann Radcliffe Comparative Literature Studies 38:1 (2001): 31-46.

SCHECTER, R. "Gothic Thermidor: The Bals-des-victimes, the Fantastic, and the Production of Historical Knowledge in Post-Terror France" Representations 61 (1998): 78-94. A special issue on "Practices of Enlightenment."

SCHEIDUNG, Oliver. "'Nothing But a Disjointed and Mutilated Tale': Zur narrativen Strategie der Doppelperspekitive in Charles Brockden Brown's historischer Erzahlung'Thessalonica: A Roman Story (1799),'" Literaturwissenschaftliches Jahrbuch im Auftrage der Gorres Gesellschaft (1997): 38, 93-110.

SCHERF, Kathleen, ed. Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. see under: M. SHELLEY, Recent Reprintings of Gothic Novels.

SCHLEGEL, Keith W. "Moral Ambiguity in the Gothic romances," M.A. Thesis, Miami University, 1970.

SCHMID, Astrid. The Fear of the Other: Approaches to English Stories of the Double. Bern & New York: Peter Lang, 1996.

SCHMITT, Cannon. "Techniques of Terror, Technologies of Nationality: Ann Radcliffe's The Italian," ELH, 61:4 (1994): 853- 876. By placing readers in "imaginative dilemmas of victimization" Radcliffe's novel investigates the super-iority of English over Italian. "Like a conduct book, The Italian teaches young women how to behave; in the heroine it models proper behavior, in the villain improper and un-English behavior. Through a combination of plot devices and narrative techiniques the novel elicits from its heroine 'Englishness' in the form of self-surveillance."

SCHMITT, Cannon. "Alien Nation: Gothic Fictions and English Nationality, 1797-1897," Dissertation Abstracts International 56:2 (1995): 561A (Indiana University). "The Gothic encapsulates a powerful and enduring cultural narrative for late-eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Britain, a narrative of alterity. Gothic fictions such as Ann Radcliffe's The Italian and later novels strongly influenced by the Gothic, such as Charlotte Brontë's Villette and Wilkie Collins's The Woman in White depend for their effects upon varieties of estrangement, from the breakdown of communication between genders and classes to the baffled efforts of modernity to make sense of its own feudal past."

SCHMITT, Cannon. Alien Nation : Nineteenth-Century Gothic Fictions and English Nationality. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania UP, 1997.

SCHNEIDER, Gerd. Transformationen des Gothic: Horror im realistischen und naturalistischen roman. [Transformations of the Gothic: Horror in the Realistic and Naturalistic Novel]. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2202.

SCHOLDSTROM, U. "Why is Doctor Jekyll a physician? ...and how closely related is he to Frankenstein?" Lakartidningen 95:10 (4 March 1998):1028-1030 [in Swedish].

SCHOMMARTZ, Kirstin. "Writing through our Demons: Postmodern Female Gothic in Doris Lessing's The Golden Notebook," B.A. Honors Thesis, Linfield College, McMinnville, OR, 1998.

SCHONBERGER-SCHLEICHER, Esther. Charlotte and Emily Brontë: A Narrative Analysis of Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights. Berne, Frankfort: Peter Lang, 1999.

SCHONE-HARWOOD, Bertold, ed. Frankenstein. New York: Columbia UP; Columbia Critical Guides, 2000.

SCHOPP, Andrew J. "Sites of Control/Stress of Contest: The Development of Fear in Twentieth Century Narrative," Dissertation Abstracts International 56:3 (1995): 924A (University of Rochester). The dissertation challenges two critical assumptions about the horror narrative: first, that horror constitutes a "safe" cultural space; second, that horror is an "essentially male" genre." Examines Stephen King's Misery and Christine as exemplars of the "safe" text that reaffirms cultural norms" contrasting King's work with Henry James's The Turn of the Screw and Shirley Jackson's The Haunting of Hill House and Toni Morrison's Beloved. "In terms of their respective cultural contexts, these canonical texts manipulate cultural fears and dismantle narrative safety."

SCHULTHEIS, Werner. "Goethe: Die Naturliche Tochter: Gotische und Modern," Euphorion: Zeitschrift fur Literaturgeschichte 80:3 (1986): 326-339. On a Goethe drama and its relationship to the Gothic style. [Goethe: The Natural Daughter: Gothic and Modern].

SCOGGIN, Daniel Paul. "Gothic Capital:: Speculation, Specters, and Atonement in the Victorian Novel," Dissertation Abstracts International 59:4 (1998: 1181A (Claremont Graduate University). The first gothic novelists designed terrifying plots about the disruption of inheritance to express their fears and doubts concerning England's transition from a land based economy to one informed by the seemingly intangible values associated with market speculation. Horace Walpole and Ann Radcliffe shaped the Gothic as a moral reaction to economic prognostication and the subsequent tyranny of debt by generating tales of specters as a providential assessment of the subtle divestment of older monetary sources." Also reads Charlotte Brontë's Villette, Dickens's Little Dorrit, and works by Wilde, Stevenson and Stoker in this critical context.

SCOTT, Linda Kane. "The Wages of Sin in Udolpho" In The Critical Response to Ann Radcliffe, Ed. Deborah D. Rogers. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994: 30. Brief note on the role of religion in the novel.

SCRITTORI, Anna Rosa. "Le suggestioni del terrore: Anne Radcliffe e il gotico." Annali di Ca'Foscari: Rivista della Facoltá di Lingue e Letterature Straniere dell'Universita di Venezia 33:1-2 (1994): 367-382.

SCULION, Valerie. "Fictions of the Family: The Use of Gothic in the Work of Plath, Carter, Lessing and Hill." Master's Thesis, Anglia Polytechnic University, 2001.

SEBESTA, Lithe. "American Gothic," Vogue 1 December 1999, 196. Discusses Colleen Atwood's eerily gorgeous costumes for the film Sleepy Hollow.

SEED, David. "Behind Closed Doors: The Management of Mystery in The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde," Gothick Origins and Innovations. eds. Victor Sage & Allan Lloyd Smith. Amsterdam; Atlanta, Georgia: Rodopi; Costerus New Series 91, 1994, pp. 180-189. Stevenson generates and intensifies mystery by "building the action around figures of concealment and then of exclusion. A central part of the novella consists of a series of entries into Jekyll's house and these entries constitute the gradual uncovering of his secret."

SEED, David. "The Mind Set Free: Charles Brockden Brown's Wieland," Making America/Making American Literature, eds. Robert A. Lee, W.M. Verhoeven. Amsterdam, Rodopi, 1996, pp. 105-122.

SEED, David. "Alien Invasions by Bodysnatchers and Related Creatures," Modern Gothic: A Reader, eds. Victor Sage and Allan Lloyd Smith. Manchester & New York: Manchester UP, 1996. pp. 152-170.

SEED, David. "Hell is a City: Symbolic Systems and Epistemological Scepticism in The City of Dreadful Night," Spectral Readings: Towards a Gothic Geography, eds. Glennis BYRON, David PUNTER. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999, 88-107.

SEED, David. " ' Psychical ' Cases: Transformations of the Supernatural in Virginia Woolf and May Sinclair" In Gothic Modernisms, Eds. Andrew Smith & Jeff Wallace. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK & New York: Palgrave, 2001: 44-61.

SEIVERT, Debra J. "Resounding Voices: Willa Cather's Literary Braiding of Robert Louis Stevenson, James M. Barrie, and and Edgar Allan Poe," Dissertation Abstracts International 61:4 (2000): 1409 (University of Nebraska-Lincoln). The Poe sections of the dissertation comment extensively on Cather's adaptation of Poe's techniques and his frenzied characters to many of her pastoral tales and novels. Cather expanded rather than repeated Poe's Gothicism to "create a Gothic realism and heightened its effect by blending Gothic elements with real-world experiences."

SÉJOURNÉ, Philippe. "Feminine Sentimental Fiction Renovated: Mrs. Eliza Parsons's The Valley of St. Gothard," Caliban, 33 (1996): 43-50.

SENF, Carol N. "Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin," Encyclopedia of Romanticism: Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s, ed. Laura Dabundo. New York: Garland Publishing, 1992, pp. 523-525.

SENF, Carol N. "Dracula and The Lair of the White Worm: Bram Stoker's Commentary on Victorian Science," Gothic Studies 2:2 (2000): 218-231. 0000. Studies the role of science and technology as well as Stoker's fascination with recent inventions and developments in "two most overtly Gothic works," Dracula and The Lair of the White Worm. "Stoker wanted to believe that science and technology could mitigate could mitigate the dark areas of life," but Stoker "wavered in his confidence in the power of science and technology."

SETZER, Sharon. "Mary Robinson's Sylphid Self: The End of Feminine Self-Fashioning," Philological Quarterly, 75:4 (1996): 501-520.

SGARD, Jean. "Les Folles," In Meldodrames et romans noirs, 1750-1890, Eds. Simone Bernard Griffiths, Jean Sgard. Toulouse: PU du Mirail, 2000, 313-325.

SHAFER, Aileen Chris. "Let Us Prey: Religious Codes and Rituals in The Vampire Lestat," The Gothic World of Anne Rice, eds. Gary Hoppenstand, Ray B. Browne. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1996, pp. 149-161.

SHAFFER, E.S. "Milton's Hell: William Beckford's Place in the Graphic and the Literary Tradition," Milton, the Metaphysicals, and Romanticism, ed. Anthony Harding. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 1994, pp. 65-83.

SHAFFER, Julie. "Familial Love, Incest, and Female Desire in Late Eighteenth-Century British Women's Novels," Criticism 41:1 (1999): 67-99. Discusses works by Elizabeth Helme and Sarah Sheriffe together with Correlia; or, The Mystic Tomb, an anonymous Minerva Press Gothic published in 1802. Finds that "the easily blurred line between familialization and incest links the Gothic and sentimental novel in ways that bring the horror of incest or incestuously based betrayal close to the heart of sentimental fiction, making it a defining element of sensibility as it is of the Gothic.

SHALLCROSS, Martyn. The Private World of Daphne Du Maurier. London: Robson, 1998.

SHARKEY, Rodney. "Gothic" In Encyclopedia of Literary Critics and Criticism, Ed. Chris Murray. London & Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999: I, 470-472. As a critical and historical label, Gothic has become a connotative term. As a genre label, the Gothic "continues to make spectral returns, ceaselessly mutating as a pronounced element in both popular and alternative forms of entertainment."

SHARP, Reggie, ed. The Gothic Novel. Leeds, UK: Paragon Press, 1999. Item unseen. Since the 48 page pamplet is part of a series titled "Paragon Summaries Medium," appears to be plot synopses of various Gothics boiled down for lazy or harried undergraduates.

SHAW, David Martin. " ' External and real, but not supernatural ': The Terror of the Soul in Brockden Brown and Poe." Dissertation Abstracts International 61:1 (1999): 185 (University of Toronto). A study of comparative American Gothicisms, the dissertation shows how "Brown and Poe deviated from the European schools, with their rejection of Gothic trappings in favour of presenting the capacity for violence inherent in the human mind. . . . Both Brown's subjective but rational realism and Poe's more romantic subjectivism emanate from the Gothic tradition."

SHAW, S. Bradley. "New England Gothic by the Light of Common Day: Lizzie Borden and Mary E. Wilkins Freeman's 'The Long Arm'" New England Quarterly 70:2 (1997): 211-236. Sources for the story found in the Lizzie Borden axe murders.

SHEEDY, Paula Beth. "The Female Epic: Authorization and Authentication," M.A. Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage, 1996. Examines the ways in which women have borrowed the power of the epic to express the epic dimension of their lives in the coded language of the gothic, first by considering the nature of the epic as a genre, and then, because the first works of a genre are often the most revealing, by assessing the expression of the epic's characteristic conventions and features in Ann Radcliffe's The Mysteries of Udolpho.

SHELBY, Eugene F. Gothic Alaskan and Other Stories: Bad Horror from the Dark Subcontinent. See under: Anthologies of Gothic Fiction.

SHELSTON, Alan. "The Supernatural in the Stories of Elizabeth Gaskell," Exhibited by Candlelight: Sources and Developments in the Gothic Tradition, eds. Valeria Tinkler Viviani, Peter Davidson, Jane Stevenson. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1995, 137-146. Discusses "The Old Nurse's Story" and "The Poor Clare" among other Gothic pieces. "Gothic fiction, supernatural fiction, is devised to threaten the reader's sense of the normal."

SHEPARD, Leslie.The Gothic Novel and Bram Stoker. Stillorgan (Co. Dublin): Published by the Author, 1983.

SHEPARD, Leslie & Albert POWER. Dracula: Celebrating 100 Years. Dublin: Mentor, 1997.

SHIELDS, Ken. "Sound Change, Child Language, and Gothic Atta," The Mankind Quarterly 30:4 (1990): 329-[data]

SHUMAKER, Jeanette Roberts. "Abjection and Degeneration in Thomas Hardy's " ' Barbara of the House of Grebe '," College Literature 26:2 (1999): 1-17.J "Thomas Hardy's Gothic story "Barbara of the House of Grebe" (1891) deals with the terrible effects of the Victorian myth of degeneration. "The character of that name comes to reject her husband, Edmond, for his proletarian origins, and marries the rich Lord Uplandtowers," thus bringing her perspective into question.

SIEVERT, Debra J. "Resounding Voices: Willa Cather's Literary Braiding of Robert Louis Stevenson, James M. Barrie, and Edgar Allan Poe," Dissertation Abstracts International 61 (2000): 1409 (University of Nebraska). Several sections concentrate on Poe's strong influence on Cather's tone and technique. Using Poe, "she created a Gothic realism and heightened its effect by blending Gothic elements with real-world experiences."

SIGMAR, Lucia Ann Stretcher. "The Gothic Tradition in Southern Local Fiction," Dissertation Abstracts International 57:2 (1996): 685A (University of Tennessee). Relates the American local color movement to the American Gothic by exploring "the dark romanticism underlying some of the movement's fiction." Four southern local colorists, Mary Noailles Murfree, Amelie Rives, Kate Chopin, and George Washington Cable, use gothic conventions to foreground restrictions placed on culture, community, and individual. "These writers invoke the strange and bizarre; they portray alienated and isolated individuals; they revive the quest hero and heroine; they refigure conventional reality as a spiritual wasteland: they explore the breakdown and collapse of tradition; they confront and expiate both the private and public guilt of the past: most importantly, they initiate a gesture of revolt."

SILVANI, Giovanna. Analisi di un Racconto Gotico: Carmilla di J.S. Le Fanu. Roma: Bulzoni, 1984.

SIPIÈRE, Dominique. "A propos d'un envoûtement: Hitchcock envisage les paysages d'Amérique"

SKEY, Malcolm. Il Romanzo Gotico: Guida alla Lettura e Bibliografia Ragionata. Roma: Edizioni Theoria, 1985.

SKINNER, John. “Ann Radcliffe’s The Mysteries of Udolpho and William Godwin’s Caleb Williams” In An Introduction to Eighteenth-Century Fiction: Raising the Novel. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK & New York: Palgrave, 2001: 212-236. Appears to be unaware of the large amount of critical attention given to the Gothic in the last two decades and takes the year 1794 to be the highpoint of the Gothic with “the publication of two epoch-making novels, superficially quite diverse, but with interesting literary parallels.” Ignores almost entirely the role of Walpole’s Castle of Otranto and Lewis’s Monk in the rise and transformation of the novel in the Eighteenth Century and resorts to antiquated critical cliches in the discussion of Radcliffe and Godwin. To be reminded in 2001 that ”Perhaps more than any other novelist, Radcliffe relies on the elements of mystery and suspense” or that “The massive reliance on suspense is the most obvious formal analogy between the two novels” is not constructive criticism.

SLAVIK, Ivan. Pribehy temnot v ceske literature XIX. a XX. stoleti. Brno: Host, 1999. Horror tales, Czech. Gothic literature, Czech Republic.

SMALL, Helen. "Bulwer-Lytton, Edward George Earle (1803-73)" in The Handbook to Gothic Literature, Ed. Marie Mulvey-Roberts. New York: New York University Press, 1998: 33-35.

SMETHURST, J. "Invented by Horror: The Gothic and African American Literary Ideology in Native Son." African American Review 35:1 (2001): 29-40.

SMITH, Amy Elizabeth. "Experimentation and 'Horrid Curiosity, in Maturin's Melmoth the Wanderer," English Studies: A Journal of EnglishLanguage and Literature, 74:6 (1993): 524-35.

SMITH, Andrew. "The Gothic Sublime: A Study of the Changing Function of Sublimity in Representations of Subjectivity in Nineteenth Century Fantasy Fiction," Dissertation Abstracts International 56:4 (1995): 3143C (University of Southampton). Examines how certain Gothic fictions of the nineteenth century draw upon and critique philosophical versions of the sublime. Argues that "sublimity is transformed into a nascent psychology in Gothic fiction which is similar to, but can be used to criticise, a Freudian psychoanalytical account. This thesis explores the development of the Gothic's handling of the sublime from early naturalistic to later urban versions, culminating in this reassessment of Freud. Theorists of the sublime examined are: Longinus, Addison, Burke, Schiller, and Kant.The Gothic writers explored are: Mary Shelley, Edgar Allan Poe, Robert Louis Stevenson, and Bram Stoker."

SMITH, Andrew. Dracula and the Critics. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Hallam University Press, 1996.

SMITH, Andrew. Gothic Radicalism: Literature, Philosophy, and Psychoanalysis in the Nineteenth Century. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999; Houndsmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Macmillan Press, 1999. Proposes as its central premise that "the Gothic critiques a tradition of idealist thought." Viewed from this angle, "the Gothic reads a particular history of idealist thought in such a way that it enables us to reinterpret that dominant history." The seven chapters are: 1. The Gothic and the Sublime. 2. Frankenstein: Sublimity Reconsidered, Foucault and Kristeva. 3. History and the Sublime. 4. Sublime Utterance: Gothic Voyages, Going Public with the Private. 5. The Urban Sublime: Kant and Poe. 6. Textuality and Sublimity in Dracula. 7. Freud's Uncanny Sublime. Has an Introduction, Afterword, Notes, and Index, but no general bibliography.

SMITH, Andrew. "Pathologising the Gothic: The Elephant Man, the Neurotic, and the Doctor," Gothic Studies 2:3 (2000): 292-304. The Doctor is Sir Frederick Treves, surgeon-in-ordinary to Queen Victoria; the Elephant Man is Joseph Merrick, "the most disgusting specimen of humanity I have ever seen." (from Treves's The Elephant Man and Other Reminiscences) "By examining how Treves uses fictional narratives, such as the Gothic and Romantic fiction, we can see how aesthetics and science are closely related. We can read Treves's memoirs both as a document which reveals the particular flavour of the Gothic discourse at the end of the nineteenth century and as a critique of medical practice."

SMITH, Andrew & Jeff WALLACE. Gothic Modernisms. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK & New York: Palgrave, 2001. Collection of 12 essays by various hands preceded by an "Introduction: Gothic Modernisms: History, Culture, and Aesthetics." Has an index but no general bibliography. The essays and essayists: 1. David PUNTER, "Hungry Ghosts and Foreign Bodies." 2. David GLOVER, "The ' Spectrality Effect ' in Early Modernism." 3. David SEED, " ' Psychical ' Cases: Transformations of the Supernatural in Virginia Woolf and May Sinclair." 4. Judith WILT, "The Ghost and the Omnibus: The Gothic Virginia Woolf." 5. Avril HORNER and Sue ZLOSNIK, "Strolling in the Dark: Gothic Flânerie in Djuna Barnes's Nightwood." 6. Deborah TYLER-BENNETT, " ' Thick Within Our Hair ': Djuna Barnes's Gothic Lovers." 7. Jeff WALLACE, " ' The stern task of living ': Dubliners, Clerks, Money, and Modernism." 8. Kelly HURLEY, "The Modernist Abominations of William Hope Hodgson." 9. Andrew SMITH, "Vampirism, Masculinity, and Degeneracy: D. H. Lawrence's Modernist Gothic." 10. Francesca ORESTANO, "Arctic Masks in a Castle of Ice: Gothic Vorticism and Wyndham Lewis's Self Condemned." 11. Nigel MORRIS, "Metropolis and the Modernist Gothic." 12. Julian WOLFREYS, "Hollywood Gothic/Gothic Hollywood: The Example of Billy Wilder's Sunset Boulevard."

SMITH, Andrew & William Hughes, Eds. Empire and the Gothic: The Politics of Genre. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 1. Andrew Smith and William Hughes, Enlightenment Gothic and Postcolonialism. 2. Massimiliano Demata, “Discovering Eastern Horrors: Beckford, Maturin, and the Discourse of Travel Literature. 3. Kim Micashiw, Charlotte Dacre’s Postcolonial Moor. 4. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Frankenstein and the Devi’s Pterodactyl. 5. Neil Cornwell, Pushkin and Odoevsky, The ‘Afro-Finnish’ Theme in Russian Gothic. 6. William Hughes, A Singular Invasion: Revisiting the Postcolonialism of Bram Stoker’s Dracula. 7. Andrew Smith, Beyond Colonialism: Death and the Body in H. Rider Haggard. 8. Helen Stoddart, Horror, Circus, and Orientalism. 9. Carol Davison, Burning Down the Master’s (Prison)-House: Revolution and Revelation in Colonial and Postcolonial Female Fiction. 10. Mariaconcetta Costantini, Crossing Boundaries: The Revision of Gothic Paradigms in Heat and Dust. 11. Victor Sage, The Ghastly and the Ghostly: The Gothic Farce of Farrell’s Empire Trilogy. 12. David Punter, Arundhati Roy and the House of History. 13. Andrew Teverson, The Number of Magic Alternatives: Salman Rushdie’s 1001 Gothic Nights. 14. Dominic Head, Coetzee and the Animals: The Quest for Postcolonial Grace.

SMITH, Andrew. "Vampirism, Masculinity, and Degeneracy: D. H. Lawrence's Modernist Gothic" In Gothic Modernisms, Eds. Andrew Smith & Jeff Wallace. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK & New York: Palgrave, 2001: 150-166.

SMITH, Elton & Robert HAAS, eds. The Haunted Mind: The Supernatural in Victorian Literature. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1999.

SMITH, Geoffrey Dayton. American Gothic: In Commemoration of the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the William Charvat American Fiction Collection, October 21 through December 6, 1991, the Philip Sills Exhibit Hall, The Ohio State University Libraries, Columbus, Ohio. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State Libraries, 1991.

SMITH, Greg. "Dark Side of the Dream: The Social Gothic in Vietnam Era America." Dissertation Abstracts International 61:10 (2000): 4055 (Western Michigan University). Studies several anti-establishment horror narratives, designating these as "social Gothic" tracing the beginnings of the "social Gothic" to Ken Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo Nest and Stephen King's fiction. "It is this demonizing of establishment America that revitalizes our Gothic narrative starting in 1968 and that continues to define much of it to the present day."

SMITH, Greg. "Ghostly Stories with or without Ghosts: The American Social Gothic." Mid-Atlantic Almanack: The Journal of the Mid-Atlantic Popular American Culture Association (Silver Spring, MD) (1998): 7, 79-88.

SMITH, Jennifer. Anne Rice: A Critical Companion. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.

SMITH, Johanna, ed. Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. see under: M. SHELLEY. recent reprintings.

SMITH, Susan. "Southern Gothic on Trial," Newsweek 17 July 1995, 29-[data]

SOLTYSIK, Agnieszka Maria. "Reading for Genre: Nineteenth Century American Gothic," Dissertation Abstracts International 59:9 (1998): 3458A (University of California, Irvine). Examines four major American writers associated with the "dark romance" and reads their work through "the epistemological and aesthetic concerns of the gothic genre." Argues that the Gothic genre produces "an ethical attitude in the reader as one of its aesthetic 'effects,' and a temporal reading model [that] facilitates critical attention to the gradual shifts in perspective, identification, and ironic distance which produce this reading experience." Cites Charles Brockden Brown's Wieland, Poe's tales, Hawthorne's fiction, and Melville's Gothic work, Pierre, to demonstrate the "deployment of gothic rhetoric, devices, and problematics in order to interrogate and critique gender and family issues."

SONSER, Anna. A Passion for Consumption: The Gothic Novel in America. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 2001. 0000. Develops (or more accuratedly reheats the ideas of Leslie Fiedler in Love and Death in the American Novel) that American literary culture is dominated by consumption "through the rereading of canonical texts." Also follows Teresa Goddu's premise in Gothic America "that a gothic pall hangs over the texts that comprise America's literary history" and that this pall "extends to contemporary novels in a continuum which persists in shaping and reflecting a cultural milieu driven by socio-economic contexts." The study is partitioned into three general sections: I. SUBVERSION containing 1. The Ghost in the Machine: Beloved and The Scarlet Letter; 2. The Monster and the Mother: Frankenstein and Beloved; 3. Stories That Won't Tell: The Witching Hour, Frankenstein, and "The Turn of the Screw"; 4. The America of my Imagination: Bellefleur and Absalom, Absalom! II. SEDUCTION containing 5. Desexed America: The Dynamics of Seduction in The Scarlet Letter and 'The Turn of the Screw"; 6. Vampire Voyeur: Spectacular Seduction in Interview with the Vampire and "The Jolly Corner"; 7. Wicked Liaison(s): Bellefleur, Beloved, Poe and the Vampire/Succubus. III. THE CULTURE OF CONSUMPTION containing 8. The Lust for Acquisitions: Bellefleur, The House of the Seven Gables, and New World Gothic Horror; 9. Appropriation and Value in Beloved and "Benito Cereno"; 10. Consuming Passions in The Vampire Lestat. CONCLUSION, Bibliography of WORKS CONSULTED and INDEX.

SORDI, Michele Marie. "Managing Desire: Friendship and Courtship in the Early English Novel," Dissertation Abstracts International 55:4 (1994): 976A (University of California, Santa Cruz). Studies representations of friendship in the early English novel. Includes Radcliffe's The Mysteries of Udolfo (1792), [sic] [wrong date, misspelled] to show how "friendship naturalizes gender and class relations promoted by the courtship plot. The final chapter on The Mysteries of Udolfo [sic] shows how friendship redefines middle-class desire in a context of family relations."

SOUPEL, Serge. "D'un archetype à l'autre: The Mysteries of Udolpho et Robinson Crusoe." Bulletin de la Société d'Études Anglo Américaines des XVIIe et XVIIIe Siècles 43 (1996): 51-61.

SOUSA, Maria Leonor Machado de. Fernando Pessoa e a literatura de ficcao. Lisboa: Novaera, 1978.

SOUSA, Maria Leonor Machado de. "Mock Gothic: o Gotico satirico," Violencia e Possessao: Estudos Ingleses Contemporaneos, eds. David Callahan, Maria Aline Seabra Ferreira, A. D. Barker. Aveiro, Portugal: Universidada de Aveiro, 1998, 45-53. [Mock Gothic: or satirical Gothic]

SOWERBY, Robin. "The Goths in History and Pre-Gothic Gothic," A Companion to the Gothic, ed. David Punter. Oxford, UK & Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2000, 15-26. Discusses the "strange history of the term and its uses before Horace Walpole." Cites Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Claudian's De Bello Gothico, and Jordanes's Getica as wsell as examples of the Goths and their actions in history such as that of Alaric the Visigothic leader who sacked Rome in 410 A.D. Prior to the Eighteenth Century, Gothic meant "non-Roman" and the antithesis of the classical in the pejorative sense. But since the Eighteenth Century, "Gothic has proved to be a truly protean term."

SPACKS, Patricia Meyer. "Female Orders of Narrative: Clarissa and The Italian," Rhetorics of Order / Ordering Rhetorics in English Neoclassical Literature, eds. J. Douglas Canfield and J. Paul Hunter. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1989, pp. 158-171. Compares the two heroines' control of the narrative in their respective ordeals. "Competing nar-ratives in Radcliffe's fiction issue not only (as in Clarissa) from characters with interests opposed to those of the heroine, but from the heroine herself. Unable to order fully her own narrative, the Radcliffean maiden may act courageously in less claustrophoibic circumstances than Clarissa's, but finally she, too, reveals woman's socially enforced weakness."

SPEAR, Jeffrey L. "Gender and Sexual Dis-ease in Dracula,"Virginal Sexuality and Textuality in Victorian Literature. Boulder, CO: netLibrary, Incorporated, 1999, [data].

SPEAREY, Susan. "Dislocations of Culture: Unhousing and the Unhomely in Salman Rushdie's Shame" In Postcolonizing the Commonwealth: Studies in Literature and Culture, Ed. Rowland Smith. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier UP, 2000: 167-180.

SPEHNER, Norbert. Écrits sur le fantastique: Bibliographie analytique des études & essais sur le fantastique publiés entre 1900 et 1985 (littérature/cinema/art fantastique). Longueuil, Quebec: Le Préambule, 1986. The bibliography is divided into ten discrete sections as follows. Numerous references to Gothic criticism occur in each section. 1. Les études genérales sur le fantastice [General Works on the Fantastic] 2. Numeros speciaux de periodiques [Special Numbers of Periodicals] 3. Ouvrages de références [Reference Works] 4. Théorie/Histoire/Thématique/Littérature comparée et études collectives [Theoretical/Historical/Comparative Literature and Collective Studies] 5. Choix de thèses inédites [Selection of Unpublished Theses] 6. Choix d'études sur l'art fantastique [Selection of Studies on Fantastic Art] 7. Études sur le cinema fantastique [Studies of the Fantastic Cinema] 8. Les études sur les écrivains fantastique [Studies of Writers of the Fantastic] 9. Addenda. Has three indexes of authors, of writers of the fantastic, of periodicals containing special numbers on the fantastic.

SPEHNER, Norbert. Dracula, Opus 300: Guide chrono-bibliographique des éditions, des versions et des adaptations internationales du roman de Bram Stoker, Un siecle d'édition (1897-1997). Quebec: Ashem Fictions, 1996. [Dracula, opus 300: Chrono-bibliographic guide to editions, versions, and international adaptations of Bram Stoker's novel. a century of edition (1897-1997)].

SPEHNER, Norbert. Frankenstein, Opus 410: Guide chrono-bibliographique des éditions, des versions et des adaptations internationales du roman de Mary Shelley (1818-1997). Quebec: Ashem Fictions, 1997. [Frankenstein, Opus 410: Chrono-bibliographic guide to editions, versions, and international adaptations of Mary Shelley's Novel].

SPEHNER, Norbert. Jekyll and Hyde, Opus 600: Guide chrono-bibliographique des éditions, des versions et des adaptations internationales du roman de Robert Louis Stevenson. Quebec: Ashem Fictions, 1997. [Jekyll and Hyde, Opus 600: Chrono-bibliographic guide to editions, versions, and international adaptations of Robert Louis Stevenson's Novel].

SPENCE, Sarah Domingue. "Nurturing in the Novels of Fanny Burney, Ann Radcliffe, and Ellen Price Wood," Dissertation Abstracts International 55:11 (1995): 3525A (Louisiana State University). Using attachment theory of contemporary psychology, studies nurturing in the novels of Fanny Burney, Ann Radcliffe, and Ellen Price Wood. "In Radcliffe's Gothic novels, The Mysteries of Udolpho, and The Italian, the heroines' attachment bond is analyzed using Ellen Moers' Gothic studies in Literary Women."

SPIVAK, Gayatri Chakravorty. "Three Women's Texts and a Critique of Imperialism," Frankenstein/Mary Shelley, ed. Fred Botting. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995, pp. 235-260.

STABLEFORD, Brian. "AINSWORTH, W(illiam) Harrison" In St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost, & Gothic Writers, Ed. David Pringle. Detroit: St. James Press/Gale, 1998: 9-10.

STABLEFORD, Brian. "BECKFORD, William" In St. James Guide to Horror, Gothic, & Ghost Writers, Ed. David Pringle. Detroit, New York, Toronto, London: St. James Press, 1998: 39-40.

STABLEFORD, Brian. "BULWER-Lytton, Edward (George Earle; 1st Baron Lytton of Knebworth" In St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost, & Gothic Writers, Ed. David Pringle. Detroit: St. James Press/Gale, 1998: 105-107.

STABLEFORD, Brian. "DOYLE, (Sir) Arthur Conan" In St. James Guide to Horror, Gothic, & Ghost Writers, Ed. David Pringle. Detroit, New York, Toronto, London: St. James Press, 1998: 191-195.

STABLEFORD, Brian. "DICKENS, Charles (John Huffam)" In St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost, & Gothic Writers, Ed. David Pringle. Detroit: St. James Press/Gale, 1998: 181-184.

STABLEFORD, Brian. "GODWIN, William" In St. James Guide to Horror, Gothic, & Ghost Writers, Ed. David Pringle. Detroit, New York, Toronto, London: St. James Press, 1998: 232-233.

STABLEFORD, Brian. "HAWTHORNE, Nathaniel" In St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost, & Gothic Writers, Ed. David Pringle. Detroit: St. James Press/Gale, 1998: 259-262.

STABLEFORD, Brian. "HOGG, James" In St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost & Gothic Writers, Ed. David Pringle. Detroit & New York: St. James Press, 1998: 275-276.

STABLEFORD, Brian. "POE, Edgar Allan" In St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost, & Gothic Writers, Ed. David Pringle. Detroit: St. James Press/Gale, 1998: 453-455.

STABLEFORD, Brian. "POLIDORI, John (William)" In St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost, & Gothic Writers, Ed. David Pringle. Detroit: St. James Press/Gale, 1998: 455-456.

STABLEFORD, Brian. "STOKER, Bram" In St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost, & Gothic Writers, Ed. David Pringle. Detroit: St. James Press/Gale, 1998: 573-575.

STABLEFORD, Brian."Early Modern Horror Fiction, 1897-1949," Fantasy and Horror: A Critical and Historical Guide to Literature, Illustration, Film, TV, Radio, and the Internet, ed. Neil Barron. Lanham, Maryland & London: Scarecrow/UPA, 1999, 103-138. The bibliography contains 181 annotated items although many of these entries might be classified as "weird" rather than highly Gothic. Stableford's introduction observes that in this period, "horror fiction was influenced by advances in psychological science. Some of the best writers of the period seem to be perfectly content not to be certain what their own stories mean, as though they were working by some methods of free association."

STANTON, Judith. “Charlotte Smith and ‘Mr. Monstroso’: an eighteenth century marriage in life and fiction.” Women’s Writing 7:1 (2000): [data].

STEIN, Karen. "Speaking In Tongues: Margaret Laurence's A Jest Of God As Gothic Narrative," Studies in Canadian Literature 20:2 (1995): 74-95.

STEIN, Karen F. Margaret Atwood Revisited. New York: Twayne, 1999. Contains the chapter "Northern Gothic: The Early Poems, 1961-1975."

STEINER, Wendy. Pictures of Romance: Form Against Content. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

STEINMAN, Lisa. [data]. In Masters of Repetition: Poetry, Culture, and Work in Thomson, Wordsworth, Shelley, and Emerson. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998: [data]. Shelley's readings of Gothic novels (and of their readership) also informed his theories on the power of lyric as opposed to "the power of narrative."

STEINMAN, Lisa. "Transatlantic Cultures: Godwin, Brown, and Mary Shelley." Wordsworth Circle 32:3 (2001): 126-130. When the English Gothic novels Caleb Williams and Frankenstein crossed the Atlantic, they were reread and reinterpreted from American cultural perspectives. The same was true when Brockden Brown's Wieland crossed the Atlantic to Great Britain. "A selfconsciousness about the repetitions inherent in their Gothic plots" was characteristic of both English and American readers.

This book traces whether poetry has a social or political role, and what that role might be (3); the term "repetition" is borrowed from Wallace Stevens' "Notes to a Supreme Fiction": the poet "is not the exceptional . . . /But he that of repetition is most master" (7). Steinman traces the influence of Thomson's career on Wordsworth, discussing Wordsworth's writings from 1790 to 1815, particularly The Ruined Cottage and The Excursion. Her aim is to show a "game of literary 'gossip,'" in which Thomson's echoes of Milton and the classics are reechoed by Wordsworth, who in turn sets the terms of a dialogue for Shelley and Emerson. "'The anxiety of influence' I explore thus is not primarily a Bloomian anxiety about individual predecessors but rather an anxiety occasioned by cultural changes" (2). Thomson aligns poetic power with political power, explicitly in The Seasons and The Castle of Indolence in his praises of British military might. "As The Ruined Cottage replaces Thomson's dreaming swain with Wordsworth's projected poet-storyteller, so poems from Shelley's Alastor volume address and revise Wordsworth's work in The Excursion (repeating Wordsworth's own revisions of The Ruined Cottage and of Thomson)" (6).

STEINMETZ, Jean-Luc. La France frénétique de 1830: Choix de textes. Paris: Phébus, 1978.

STENBERG, Carl Edward. "The Growth of a Literary Convention: A Study of the English Gothic novel, 1764-1797," Master's Thesis, The Queen's University of Belfast, 1959.

STERN, Madeleine B. Louisa May Alcott: From Blood and Thunder to Hearth and Home. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998.

STERN, Rebecca F. "Gothic Light: Vision and Visibility in the Victorian Novel," South Central Review: The Journal of the South Central Modern Language Association, 11:4 (1994): 26-39.

STEVENS, David. The Gothic Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge UP; Contexts in Literature Series, 2000. Part of the Cambridge Contexts in Literature Series and meant for classroom use or self-study, the book is a general introduction to the Gothic, its cultural and historical contexts, and modern approaches to its major themes. After being buried beneath so much theory, it is refreshing to read in the introduction that "Contextual and critical investigations are certainly important but Gothic texts are intended to be enjoyed above all else. It is in this spirit that this book has been written." Organized into six general chapters: 1. Approaching the Gothic Tradition. 2. Approaching the Texts. 3. Texts and Extracts 4. Critical Approaches. 5. How to write about the Gothic 6. Resources. Flaws in selection of representative material are immediately evident. Twelve out of thirteen of the extracts in chapter 3 are British Gothic writers. Poe is the sole American writer to be included. Concludes with an index and a Glossary of Critical and Historical Terms, wholly inadequate for the serious student since it contains a mere five entries on circulating libraries, closure, romanticism, the sublime, and Whig and Tory parties. Other crucial reference sections are also insufficient. For example, the key website of the International Gothic Association is not listed.

STEVENSON, John Allen. " Tom Jones, Jacobitism, and the Rise of the Gothic," Gothick Origins and Innovations, eds. Allan Lloyd Smith, Victor Sage. Amsterdam; Atlanta, Georgia: Rodopi; Costerus New Series 91, 1994, pp. 16-22. By concentrating on Book VII of Tom Jones, examines moments in the novel that have "an oddly Gothic flavor. We can see Tom Jones as a kind of narrative transition point between Stuart-Jacobite history and the Gothic novel."

STEWART, Garrett. "'Count Me In': Dracula, Hypnotic Participation, and the Late Victorian Gothic of Reading," Literature Interpretation Theory, 5:1 (1994): 1-18.

STODDART, Helen. "Isak Dinesen and the Fiction of Gothic Gravity," Modern Gothic: A Reader, eds. Victor Sage and Allan Lloyd Smith. Manchester & New York: Manchester UP, 1996. pp. 81-88.

STODDART, Helen. “The Passion of New Eve and the Cinema: Hysteria, Spectacle, and Masquerade” In The Gothic, Ed. Fred Botting. Cambridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2001: [data].

STOKES, Roy B. Michael Sadleir, 1888-1957. Metuchen. NJ: Scarecrow Press. 1980. Has a biographical introduction, excerpts from Sadleir's bibliographical research, and a valuable checklist of his writings including the novel Fanny by Gaslight (1940). "Few collections had previously given attention to Gothic novels. There was an air of novelty surrounding the collection of items such as these."

STOLER, John A. "Lewis, Matthew Gregory," Encyclopedia of Romanticism: Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s, ed. Laura Dabundo. New York: Garland Publishing, 1992, pp. 330=-332.

STOLER, John A. "Radcliffe, Ann Ward," Encyclopedia of Romanticism: Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s, ed. Laura Dabundo. New York: Garland Publishing, 1992, pp. 481-483.

STOLER, John A. "Walpole, Horace," Encyclopedia of Romanticism: Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s, ed. Laura Dabundo. New York: Garland Publishing, 1992, pp. 603-604.

STOLER, John A. "Having Her Cake and Eating, Too: Ambivalence, Popularity, and Psychosocial Implications of Ann Radcliffe's Fiction," Jane Austen and Mary Shelley, and their Sisters, ed. Laura Dabundo. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2000: 19-29. Wrongheadedly follows J.M.S. Tompkins's claim (now refuted) that "the authorship and readership" of the eighteenth-century Gothic novel "was primarily female." The remainder of the article repeats a standard critical position taken many times before on the ambiguous message of Radcliffean Gothicism: her novels are "appealing to the vogue of sensibility while at the same time praising the commonsensical values of domesticity to which women were expected to conform in a male-dominated society."

STOLL, Anita. "La Casa junto al rio de Elena Garro y el gotico femenino," Actas del X Congreso de la Asociacion de Hispanistas, I-IV. Barcelona; Promociones y Pubs. Universitarias, 1992, 1011-1016.

STOTT, Rebecca. "Through a Glass Darkly: Aquarium Colonies and Nineteenth-Century Narratives of Marine Monstrosity," Gothic Studies 2:3 (2000): 305-327. Two of the books consulted by Bram Stoker during the composition of Dracula were Henry Lee's Sea Fables Explained and Sea Monsters Unmasked. Argues that these works "and other popular works on marine zoology, published in scores since the early 1850s, provide an important and neglected opportunity for understanding Victorian conceptions of evolutionary, anthropological, and anatomical monstrosity."

STRACHAN, John. "The Politics of the Gothic Novel, 1764-1820," Doctoral Thesis, Oxford University, 1992.

STRANGE Fits of Passion': Wordsworth and Mrs. Radcliffe," Notes & Queries 45:2 (1998): 188-[data]

STRAUB, August W. & Rhona JUSTICE-MALLOY."Gothic and Post-Gothic Theatre: Cities, Paradise, Corrales, Globes, and Olimpico," Theatre Symposium: A Journal of the Southeastern Theatre Conference 4 (1996): 132-139.

STRAUSS, Walter. "The Fictions of Surrealism," Studies in Twentieth Century Literature 20:2 (1996): 431-[data]

STREEBY, Shelley Suzanne. "Republican Gothic: George Lippard, Urban Sensationalism, and the Transformation of the Literary Public Sphere in the United States, 1830-1860," Dissertation Abstracts International 55:9 (1995): 2876A (University of California at Berkeley). Trace the historical construction of a distinction between "mass culture" and "literary culture" by comparing "the turbulent, bloody, popular Gothic fiction written by George Lippard during the 1840s and 50s with two gothic novels from F.O. Matthiessen's short list of American literary classics, The House of the Seven Gables and Pierre. While Lippard relentlessly foregrounds bodies, unresolved social struggles, and material and economic divisions within the republic, Hawthorne and Melville demarcate a generic boundary between their own writing and popular fiction by resituating sensational plots, themes, and conventions within narratives of individual interior development."

STREEBY, Shelley. "Haunted Houses: George Lippard, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Middle-class America," Criticism 38 (1996): 443-472. Maintains that the neglect of authors like George Lippard in favor of Nathaniel Hawthorne in the discussion of class conflict works to exorcise more aggressively anticapitalist forms of countermemory. Asserts that this neglect reinscribes the myths of a middle-class America that have haunted American studies. Lippard's obsessive focus on flesh and blood are part of a sensationalizing strategy that helped him to elaborate a critique of liberal capitalism not present in Hawthorne's works.

STROUPE, John H. "Ruskin, Lawrence, and Gothic Naturalism." Ball State University Forum 11 (1970): 3-9. Draws meaningful comparisons and contrasts between the two authors in their development of a modified Gothic style.

STRYCHACZ, Thomas. "A Note on Willa Cather's Use of Edgar Allan Poe's 'The Pit and the Pendulum' in The Professor's House," Modern Fiction Studies 36 (1990): 57-60.

STUART, Roxana. Stage Blood: Vampires of the Nineteenth-Century Stage. Bowling Green: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1994.

STUGART, Shawn Wayne. "Carnival Gothic: Masquerade and Identity in the American Gothic Fictions of Brown, Melville, Hawthorne, and Poe," M.A. Thesis, University of Northern Colorado, 1996.

STUPRICH, Michael. Horror. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2001. Series: The Greenhaven Press Companion to Literary Movements and Genres. Sectioned into four chapters: Chapter 1: Understanding Horror and its Attractions; The Appeal of the Unknown; Some Defining Elements of Horror by Stephen King; The Paradox of Horror by Noël Carroll; Five Characteristics of Postmodern Horror by Isabel Cristina Penedo. Chapter 2: The Gothic and the Grotesque; The Gothic Novel, 1764-Present by Anne Williams; Elements of the Gothic by Linda Bayer Berenbaum; The Grotesque in Literature by Bernard McElroy; The Gothic Tradition in American Literature by Joyce Carol Oates; Poe and the Gothic by Clark Griffith. Chapter 3: Three Classic Horror Novels; Biographical Contexts for Frankenstein by Wendy Lesser; Death and Birth in Frankenstein by Ellen Moers; Analyzing Dracula's Enduring Popularity by James B. Twitchell; Dracula's Antifeminism by Bram Dijkstra; Identity and Repression in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Mark Jancovich. Chapter 4: Modern Masters of Horror; H. P. Lovecraft's Life and Work by Robert Bloch; Stephen King's "Art of Darkness" by Douglas E, Winter; The Novels of Anne Rice by Lynda Haas and Robert Haas; Sex, Death, and Violence in the Early Works of Clive Barker by S. T. Joshi. Has a chronology (sketchy and incomplete), a bibliographical section "For Further Research" consisting of General Reference Guides (8 listed but not annotated), General Critical Studies (4 listed but not annotated), Studies of Individual Writers (12 listed, but not annotated), and The Gothic Tradition (5 titles listed, but not annotated). As a reference, the book might be useful as a primer to the form but will have little bibliographical value for students of the Gothic even at the elementary level. All of the criticism in the chapter on Gothic fiction has seen previous publication and is excerpted in patches from book length studies. Bibliographies are sparse and will not take the serious researcher very far into the subject. Coverage of Gothic authors is too narrow and ill-defined to suggest the global dimensions of the Gothic. In sum, this book has the appearance of amateurishness and haste when set against far more reliable and useful guides such as Marie Mulvey-Roberts's Handbook to Gothic Literature and E. F. Bleiler's Supernatural Fiction Writers.

SUMATSU, C. "Le Récit labyrinthique: Fantastiques et procédés narratifs dans Le Manuscrit trouvé à Saragosse." Études de langue et littérature françaises 62 (1993): 29-41.

SUMMY, Melisa Ann. "The Empire Bites Back: Abjection in the Late Victorian Gothic novel." Master's Thesis, Miami University, 2001.

SUNDQUIST, Eric J. "Sanctuary: An American Gothic," Douze lectures de Sanctuarie, ed. André Bleikasten, Nicole Moulinoux. Rennes: PU de Rennes/Foundation William Faulkner, 1995, pp. 83-101.

SURRATT, Marshall N. "'The Awe-Creating Presence of the Deity': Some Religious Sources for Charles Brockden Brown's Wieland," Papers on Language and Literature 33:3 (1997): 310-324.

SUTHERLAND, John. "The Novel: Gothic" In A Companion to Romanticism, Ed. Duncan Wu. Oxford, UK & Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1998: 333-337. Surveys and briefly evaluates the Gothic novels of Walpole, Beckford, Reeve, Radcliffe, Lewis, and Radcliffe with random remarks on Dacre (Zofloya), William Henry Ireland (The Abbess), and the chapbooks. Oddly, in a companion to Romanticism, does not mention the Gothic fiction written by Romantic writers. Makes use of Montague Summers's categories of Gothicism (historical Gothic, sentimental Gothic) but does not acknowledge Summers in the bibliography. Generally, the two chapters on the Gothic in A Companion to Romanticism are weak in making connections between Gothic fiction and Romantic poets and poetry. The impression is left that only Byron read the Gothics and was influenced by them.

SUTHERLAND, John. "Michael Sadleir and his Collection of Nineteenth-Century Fiction." Nineteenth Century Literature 56 (2001): 145-159. Gives a biography of "Britain's greatest amateur collector of Victoriana," Michael Sadleir (1888-1957). Notes that "he cultivated a specialist interest in Gothic romance and collected widely." The observation that Sadleir "was uninterested in ' text,' and instead was obsessed with the book as physical or material object" seems patently untrue

SWAN, Susan Z. "Gothic Drama in Disney's Beauty and the Beast: Subverting Traditional Romance by Transcending the Animal-human Paradox," Critical Studies in Mass Communciation 16:3 (1999): 350-369. In 1991, Walt Disney Studios released the animated feature film Beauty and the Beast to wide acclaim. In 1994 they set out to leverage their success into a new market: Broadway. By making overtures in domestic and international audiences with a musical version of Beauty and the Beast, they redefined legitimate theatre into a mass-market venue. In an attempt to understand what Disney has accomplished with this classic fairy tale, the article discusses the animated version as an example of Gothic drama and Gothic romance and argues "that their success, like that of Gothic novels is based on an openness to reappropriation by women. By taking advantage of the core paradox of Gothics, namely the paradox of our Animal and Human natures, this Disney tale can be read as an indictment of traditional gender roles and a validation of unconventional roles."

SWANN, Karen. "Suffering and Sensation in The Ruined Cottage," Publications of the Modern Language Association, 106 (1991): 83-95.

SWEET, Nanora. “Felicia Hemans’ ‘A Tale of the Secret Tribunal’: Gothic Empire in the Age of Jeremy Bentham and Walter Scott.” European Journal of English Studies 6 (2002): 159-171.

SYKES, Arlene. "The Scent of Eucalyptus: Gothic Autobiography," Australian Literary Studies 14:3 (1990): 306-[data]

SZABO, Victoria E. "The Dangers and Delights of Gothic Sensibility," B.A. Honors Thesis, Williams College, 1990. On Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre.

SZALAY, Edina. "The Gothic as Maternal Legacy in Margaret Atwood's Lady Oracle." Neohelicon 28:1 (2001): 216-233.